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Les parcs relais, outils clés de politiques intermodales de déplacement urbain

Abstract : Metropolisation, the result of the shifting patterns of concentration and expansion in populations and activities which have been affecting large French cities over the last twenty years, has been accompanied by major developments in lifestyle as well as structural changes in people's daily travel needs. The individualisation of behaviours, the break-up of traditional forms of relationship, the spatial and temporal de-synchronization of rhythms have resulted in the dispersion of mobility flow over vast areas which tend to be globally appropriated by means of several public transport networks, or more often, the car. These developments have led to the exacerbation of traffic and parking problems in and towards the sectors of greatest density where the most efficient public transport networks are to be found. This is the socio-organisational background against which park and ride strategies, the aim of which is to organise the complementarity of public and individual means of transport, have been implemented in the agglomerations and regions of France. They represent three main types of challenge for their various potential developers between which a compromise with regard to their conception and management must be found: optimisation of profitability for the transport offer through an increase in users, the organisation of intermodality and modal transfers to cover a wider area, and the orientation of urban planning through the re-allocation of space and the development of the nodal points in the network. In actual fact, they function as maintenance instruments for centres of urban concentration to which they facilitate access, but on a wider scale, that of the functioning of urban regions, they establish a hierarchical model of network organisation within which a journey may be made using both public transport and the car, one after the other, each in the geographical area where its level of socio-economic efficiency is at its maximum. The comparison between the failures or mixed successes finally obtained in France and the experience both of countries with strong planning policies (Germany, Switzerland) and liberal countries (United States, United Kingdom), show us that technical, organisational and institutional innovations should be introduced at the location, design and operational stages of these pivots in the modal chain, which are also interfaces with the region. At the same time, they should be integrated into local transport policies which must be placed at the centre of overall thinking on the functioning and future of urban areas.
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Submitted on : Monday, October 25, 2010 - 4:48:07 PM
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Fabienne Margail. Les parcs relais, outils clés de politiques intermodales de déplacement urbain. Géographie. Ecole Nationale des Ponts et Chaussées, 1996. Français. ⟨tel-00529491⟩



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