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Contribution des matériaux de couverture à la contamination métallique des eaux de ruissellement

Abstract : This thesis aimed to develop a tool for the evaluation of annual metallic flows emitted from roofing materials at the scale of a watershed in the architectural and meteorological context of Paris conurbation. The methodology used in this work is based on (1) the assessment of annual metallic emissions from different metallic materials typically used for roofing in the region considered through an experimental test bed, (2) the establishment of a methodological framework for modelling the metallic flow emitted from the roofs of catchment area, which is based both on the modelling of metal emissions from the materials at different spatial and temporal scales (depending on rainfall, geometry of the roof ...) from data obtained on the test bed, and on the quantification of metallic surface areas of roofs in the catchment area. The first part of the work has been based on the exploitation of experimental test beds of 1 / 2 m², testing 12 metallic materials from 5 families (zinc, copper, lead, steel, aluminium) in various implemented (panels, gutters, fixing brackets, exposed on two different sites. 13 metallic species were quantified in the collected runoff which allowed (1) to acquire a large database of annual runoff rates by different materials, highlighting that the annual runoff rates obtained can be fairly important, with an order of magnitude of several grams per square meter per year for the constitutive elements of materials, (2)to classify these materials according to their polluting potential, through the definition of an index of metal contamination taking into consideration the emissions of Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn and the differences in toxicity of metals. A modelling of metal emissions from the materials at different time scales has been conducted, leading to the conclusion that the rainfall quantity and the duration of exposure are fundamental parameters. It appeared that the rainfall value is sufficient to model metallic emission from materials for long time scales but not enough to model these emissions on a few weeks period. A more complex model, based on an assumption of accumulation / dissolution of corrosion products on the surface of the material gives satisfactory results for these time-scales periods. The spatial extrapolation of results obtained on the test bed scale was based on other experiments, first on test beds, leading to the conclusion that the length of flow has no influence on the mass of metal entrained in the runoff, which can be calculated from the rainfall quantity, the projected area and inclination of the panel (which is negligible when it is below 50 °), and then at the real roof scale for a validation step. In the second part of this work, quantification of surface areas of roofs at the scale of the catchment was conducted using a classification tool image analysis based on the radiometry of materials. The results are encouraging, with about 75 to 80% of roofs ranked on the basis of classification. The main errors are due to confusions between materials presenting nearby radiometry (slate / zinc, for example, which can be close depending on the amount of sunshine). Exploratory work was conducted for the consideration of singular elements - usually realized in metal -, from the use of unified technical documents. The evaluation of metal surfaces concerned has proved difficult to implement in an automatic way because of the small size of these elements, not visible on an aerial photo
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  • HAL Id : tel-00539932, version 1

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Pauline Sainte. Contribution des matériaux de couverture à la contamination métallique des eaux de ruissellement. Sciences de la Terre. Université Paris-Est, 2009. Français. ⟨NNT : 2009PEST1051⟩. ⟨tel-00539932⟩

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