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Apport de la mesure en continu pour la gestion de la qualité des effluents de temps de pluie en réseau d'assainissement

Abstract : The purpose of this thesis is to prove the usefulness of continuous turbidity measurements for the monitoring of particulate pollution in combined sewer systems, and assess the contribution of these measurements to real-time and lagged control of sewer systems. In the first part, the implementation of continuous turbidity measurements is described. The main uncertainties components are identified and appropriate calculation methods for the uncertainties are proposed. The issues of reliability and representativeness of turbidity measurements are treated and lead to solutions for the in situ installation of turbidimeters and the definition of proper monitoring and maintenance protocols. Finally, the noise which disturbs turbidity measurements is quantified, and filtering methods are compared. The second part is devoted to the analysis of turbidity behaviour, drawing from data monitored on two sites in the combined sewer of Paris in 2006. Eighty rain events are described by their mean and maximum concentrations and by their mass/volume distribution curves. These criteria are used to define typologies, which are then linked to flow parameters and to the antecedent dry weather period of the event. This analysis leads to a detailed description of variability. The variability of the settling characteristics of the particles was also studied using data coming from sedimentation tank. Finally two applications are developed. The first is an assessment of lagged pollutant loads. Two methods for exploiting samples taken during a fixed number of rain events are compared. The first method only uses the results of sample analysis to establish an average concentration. The second method uses samples to calibrate relationships between turbidity and pollutant parameters, which are then applied to continuous turbidity measurements. Another group of applications deals with the use of turbidity for real time control of pollutants flows. Two kinds of configuration were studied. For each one, a strategy only using flow data is compared with a strategy using turbidity and flow data. Simulations are performed for a wide range of configuration parameters with real flow and turbidity data at the entrance of the system. For the application of assessment of pollutants flow as well as for real time control applications, the improvement brought by turbidity was assessed and proved to be significant
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Céline Lacour. Apport de la mesure en continu pour la gestion de la qualité des effluents de temps de pluie en réseau d'assainissement. Autre. Université Paris-Est, 2009. Français. ⟨NNT : 2009PEST1030⟩. ⟨tel-00555629⟩



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