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Études cinétique et mécanistique d'oxydation/minéralisation des antibiotiques sulfaméthoxazole (SMX), amoxicilline (AMX) et sulfachloropyridazine (SPC) en milieux aqueux par procédés électrochimiques d'oxydation avancée : mesure et suivi d'évolution de la toxicité lors du traitement

Abstract : After their use, the drugs used in human or veterinary are partially metabolized during their use and then the non metabolized drugs and/or their metabolites are continuously released into the wastewater. Their presence and accumulation in natural waters of these substances constitutes an emerging pollution leading to the disruption of ecosystems and increased malfunction in the reproduction of aquatic species such as fish. Among the, pharmaceuticals pollutants, the antibiotics deserve special attention because they are used in very large quantities and are biologically active molecules that can interact with specific biological targets leading to emergence of the phenomenon of microorganism's resistance towards the potential pathogens such as bacteria. It is therefore important to develop efficient treatment methodologies for limiting the presence of pharmaceutical contaminants in aquatic environments.In this work we applied the electro-Fenton process (EF), an indirect advanced electrochemical oxidation process, to the oxidative degradation of selected three antibiotics largely used: sulfamethoxazole (SMX), amoxicillin (AMX) and sulfachloropyridazine (SCP). The treatment of aqueous solutions of these antibiotics was achieved in aqueous medium thank to the electrochemically generated hydroxyl radicals. The hydroxyl radicals are produced in situ at constant current in an undivided electrochemical cell, equipped with a three-dimensional cathode (carbon felt) and a Pt or BDD anode. These radicals are generated through the Fenton reaction in homogeneous medium:H2O2 + Fe2+ + H+ → Fe3+ + H2O + •OHwith the electrochemical generation of H2O2 (from 2-electrons reduction of dissolved O2) and regeneration of Fe2+ ions (from one-electron reduction of Fe3+ ions formed by Fenton reaction).The effect of some parameters on the oxidative degradation of antibiotics and on the mineralization of their aqueous solutions was investigated. The co-catalytic effect of Cu2+ was also studied. Hydroxyl radicals formed in aqueous medium are very powerful oxidizing agents and lead to mineralization of antibiotic under study. The kinetics study shows that oxidative degradation of the three antibiotics follows a pseudo-first order, with relatively short degradation time. For example, with a Pt anode, the complete oxidation of antibiotics SMX, AMX and SCP was achieved in less than 15 min at 300 mA. The absolute rate constant of hydroxylation reactions of antibiotics under study and their several aromatic intermediates was determined by competition kinetics method using the p-hydroxybenzoic acid as reference compound. The identification and monitoring of aromatic oxidation products, short-chain carboxylic acids and released inorganic ions during the treatment, allow use to propose a general mineralization reaction pathway for antibiotics degradation by hydroxyl radicals. The efficiency of anodic oxidation (AO) with a BDD anode and Pt was also studied comparatively. The efficiency of mineralization of aqueous solutions of antibiotics was evaluated by measuring total organic carbon (TOC). The evolution of toxicity during the treatment of antibiotic solutions by Microtox® method based on the inhibition measurements of the luminescence of marine bacteria Vibrio fischeri showed the formation of intermediates more toxic than of starting molecules. The overall results confirm the efficiency of electro-Fenton method for remediation of wastewater contaminated with antibiotics
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Ahmad Dirany. Études cinétique et mécanistique d'oxydation/minéralisation des antibiotiques sulfaméthoxazole (SMX), amoxicilline (AMX) et sulfachloropyridazine (SPC) en milieux aqueux par procédés électrochimiques d'oxydation avancée : mesure et suivi d'évolution de la toxicité lors du traitement. Sciences agricoles. Université Paris-Est, 2010. Français. ⟨NNT : 2010PEST1058⟩. ⟨tel-00582963⟩

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