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Imagerie hyperspectrale par transformée de Fourier : limites de détection caractérisation des images et nouveaux concepts d'imagerie

Noura Matallah 1
1 Laboratoire Charles Fabry de l'Institut d'Optique / Scop
LCFIO - Laboratoire Charles Fabry de l'Institut d'Optique
Abstract : Hyperspectral imaging is now very important in remote sensing applications. There are two main ways to build such imagers : the first one uses a grating and a slit, and the spectral image is acquired line by line along the track of the carrier. The second way is to use the principle of Fourier transform (FT) spectrometry. Some of these systems are built in such a way that they record the interferogram of each point of the scene as it moves through the field of view. The spectrum of the light coming from a particular point is then calculated by the Fourier transform of its interferogram. Classical gratting-based spectral imagers are easier to build and the data they provide a better signal to noise ratio if the main source of noise comes from the detector.In the first part of this thesis, we study the influence of various types of noise on the classic and TF-based architectures to identify the conditions in which these last ones present an advantage. We study particularly the influence of detector noise, photons noise, detector gain and offset fluctuations and spatial correlation properties of the intensity fluctuations. In the second part, we present the conception, the realization and the first results of an imager bases on a Michelson interferometer with dihedrons named DéSIIR (“Démonstrateur de Spectro Imagerie Infrarouge”). The first results show that, in simultaneous spectrometer mode, DéSIIR allows the reconstruction of the spectrum with respect to the specific requirements, which are to be able to detect an objet of some degrees warmer than the background of the scene observed with a resolution of about 25 cm -1. In imager mode, this reconstruction is performed for each point of the scene.
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Noura Matallah. Imagerie hyperspectrale par transformée de Fourier : limites de détection caractérisation des images et nouveaux concepts d'imagerie. Autre [cond-mat.other]. Université Paris Sud - Paris XI, 2011. Français. ⟨NNT : 2011PA112025⟩. ⟨tel-00585537⟩

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