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Résolution de grands problèmes en optimisation stochastique dynamique et synthèse de lois de commande

Abstract : This work is intended at providing resolution methods for Stochastic Optimal Control (SOC) problems. We consider a dynamical system on a discrete and finite horizon, which is influenced by exogenous noises and actions of a decision maker. The aim is to minimize a given function of the behaviour of the system over the whole time horizon. We suppose that, at every instant, the decision maker is able to make observations on the system and even to keep some in memory. Since it is generally profitable to take these observations into account in order to draw further actions, we aim at designing decision rules rather than simple decisions. Such rules map to every instant and every possible observation of the system a decision to make. The present manuscript presents three main contributions. The first is concerned with the study of scenario-based solving methods for SOC problems. We compare the use of the so-called scenario trees technique to the particle method. The first one has been widely studied among the Stochastic Programming community and has been somehow popular in applications, until recent developments showed numerically as well as theoretically that this methodology behaved poorly when the number of time steps of the problem grows. We here explain this fact in details and show that this negative feature is not to be attributed to the scenario setting, but rather to the use of a tree structure. Indeed, we show on numerical examples how the particle method, which is a newly developed variational technique also based on scenarios, behaves in a better way even when dealing with a large number of time steps. The second contribution starts from the observation that, even with particle methods, we are still facing some kind of curse of dimensionality. In other words, decision rules intrisically suffer from the dimension of their domain, that is observations (or state in the Dynamic Programming framework). For a certain class of systems, namely decomposable systems, we adapt results concerning the decomposition of large-scale systems which are well known in the deterministic case to the SOC case. The application is not straightforward and requires some statistical analysis for the dual variable, which is in our context a stochastic process. We propose an original algorithm called Dual Approximate Dynamic Programming (DADP) and study its convergence. We also apply DADP to a real-life power management problem. The third contribution is concerned with a rather structural property for SOC problems: the question of dynamic consistency for a sequence of decision making problems over time. Our aim is to establish a link between the notion of time consistency, that we loosely define in the last chapter, and the central concept of state structure within optimal control. This contribution is original in the following sense. Many works in the literature aim at finding optimization models which somehow preserve the "natural" time consistency property for the sequence of decision making problems. On the contrary, we show for a broad class of SOC problems which are not a priori time-consistent that it is possible to regain this property by simply extending the state structure of the model
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Pierre Girardeau. Résolution de grands problèmes en optimisation stochastique dynamique et synthèse de lois de commande. Mathématiques générales [math.GM]. Université Paris-Est, 2010. Français. ⟨NNT : 2010PEST1026⟩. ⟨tel-00587763⟩

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