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Les collèges d’experts et la fabrique de la normalisation technique. Hybridation Normative et Performation de la Haute Qualité Environnementale (HQE) des Bâtiments en France.

Abstract : This research discusses the emergence, the formalization and the institutionalization processes of the Environmental High Quality (HQE) Buildings' standard in France.In 1992, the Environmental High Quality (HQE) approach was initiated in a workgroup of the Ministry of Housing and supported by public administration sector. An HQE Association was created in 1996 to promote and develop the approach. It was conceived as a “standard-based organization with the purpose of supporting one certain standard” (Brunsson & Jacobsson 2000: 50). Thus the HQE association's first mission was to create a reference defining environmental building quality that, in turn, would allow for a common language among actors in this field. The first version of the HQE standard is published in 1997 by the Association. It specified building characteristics, its tools and other elements of the building process, controlling the exterior environmental impacts and creating healthy conditions inside houses. In 2005, the certification of the HQE approach is launched. Progressively the certification of the HQE approach met a great success both in the public and private se ctors. Finally, in less than fifteen years this approach became the French standard of the Environmental Quality of Buildings.Standardization is not just a technical process but “thoroughly political process” (Olshan 1993: 320). Standards set the question about the political role played by experts in the performation of markets (Callon 1998). We claim that a research focused on the standardization-making is relevant to explain knowledge dynamics and markets innovation.Following the emergence of new environmental rules in the French building sector allows us to analyse the process of “standardization-making” by collective professional actors. Three main conclusive findings can be stressed :- The process of « standardization-making » don't essentially take place within the official standardization Agencies (as AFNOR). Collective professional actors take an important part in the process of “standardization-making” by operating as “institutional entrepreneurs” in emerging fields.- Within the process of “standardization-making”, collective professional actors fix new jurisdictions to shape the system of profession (notably the jurisdiction of Architect is reduced by the HQE advisors).- Standardization performs the markets by introducing and legitimating new rules and creating new Business Models (notably with the certification process).
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Lionel Cauchard. Les collèges d’experts et la fabrique de la normalisation technique. Hybridation Normative et Performation de la Haute Qualité Environnementale (HQE) des Bâtiments en France.. Sociologie. Université Paris-Est, 2010. Français. ⟨NNT : 2010PEST3009⟩. ⟨tel-00593753⟩

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