Spatialisation du bilan hydrique des sols pour caractériser la distribution et la croissance des espèces forestières dans un contexte de changement climatique

Abstract : Numerous researches focus on species distribution shifts toward ecological conditions most suited to plants under climate change. Ecological indices used to characterize species ecology and to define their vulnerability over broad areas are often at coarse resolution and are determined by data availability. The aim of this work was to map soil water balance and its different components at a fine spatial resolution, and to evaluate their interest to model plant distribution and growth over the whole French forests. We firstly modeled and mapped the solar radiation and the soil water holding capacity of forest soils. These data were combined with temperatures and precipitation to map the soil water balance. For solar radiation, the main results showed that this parameter is only accurately predicted at the French scale when cloudiness is taken into account. We also showed that soil water holding capacity can be mapped at the French scale using the basic information collected on numerous plots from the French national forest inventory. Values extracted from the soil water holding capacity map allowed predicting tree species growth with efficiency similar to values estimated on plots. We also demonstrated soil water balance is more efficient than climatic water balance or precipitation to model species distribution, mainly for hygrophilous and xerophilous species. These results suggest importance of available water could be underestimated when determining the ecological niche of species. These maps allow to improve species ecology knowledge and to help in the determination of their vulnerability area to climate change.
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Christian Piedallu. Spatialisation du bilan hydrique des sols pour caractériser la distribution et la croissance des espèces forestières dans un contexte de changement climatique. Biologie végétale. AgroParisTech, 2012. Français. ⟨NNT : 2012AGPT0001⟩. ⟨tel-00833247⟩

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