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L'Agriculture et le peuple mapuche

Abstract : This thesis demonstrates that, throughout history, before the Spanish conquestuntil the 21st Century, agriculture has been an important activity of the mapuchepeople. Research conducted points out the ability of the mapuche to resist andbattle against powerful and ferocious foes, and in addition, their intelligentadaptation to foreign invasions, including that of the State of Chile. The thesisdemonstrates the changes that took place in agriculture and the ability of themapuche people to innovate, since the Inca invasion in the 15th century, theSpanish conquest through the 16 to 19th centuries, and the Chilean occupationthat extends reaching the 21st century. At the start of the Spanish conquest,mapuches constituted people that autonomously occupied a territory, were fullysedentary, communities populated clearly delimited areas, and conductedagriculture of cultural subsistence, in addition to harvesting native vegetation,fishing and hunting. Society was matricially organized by lineages, by groups,had a cosmic view, culture and social organization. During the Colony, theyadopt and appropriate European technology, develop a powerful animalhusbandry that extends through the Argentinian pampa; this activity generates astrong and diversified commercial exchange between the mapuche territory andthe Kingdom of Chile, of animal products, handicrafts and food products.Exchange was unfavorable for the mapuche and had to be regulated throughparliaments. The Chilean Republic at first recognized the mapuche territories,but later, for reasons of economic expansion, occupies them through war.Mapuches resist and are defeated by the Chilean army that had recently wonthe Pacific Ocean War against Peru and Bolivia. The mapuche enter the 20thcentury deprived of 95% of their territory, almost the total of their powerfulanimal husbandry, their capital goods, machinery, equipment, annual andperennial crops. But above all, they are excluded, segregated, faced withassimilation and extermination strategies, they die from hunger, diseases andpests. The real historical debt of the State of Chile with the mapuche generatesat that point. Agrarian reforms, in particular that of the Popular Unity (1970-73)political government faces the problem of usurped lands and initiates solutions,later reversed by the Military Government (1973-90). Concertation forDemocracy governments (1990-2010), recognizes the specificities of themapuche people and partially solves land conflicts. At present, rural mapucheface powerful strategies of assimilation and cultural extermination; however, atthe rural communities’ level, the ability of the mapuche people to adapt tochanges, adequate, resist, and impose the basic terms of the conditionsnecessary to reconstruct themselves as a Chilean original people has becomeclearly evident.
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Ángel Gabriel de María Vivallo Pinares. L'Agriculture et le peuple mapuche. Autre [q-bio.OT]. AgroParisTech, 2011. Français. ⟨NNT : 2011AGPT0030⟩. ⟨tel-01080238⟩



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