Influence d'accidents géométriques et du mode de chargement sur le comportement en fatigue à grand nombre de cycles d'un acier inoxydable austénitique 316L

Abstract : The aim of this study is to analyze the influence of both the microstructure and defects on the high cycle fatigue (HCF) behaviour of a 316L austenitic stainless steel thanks to finite element (FE) simulations of polycrystalline aggregates.%The scatter encountered in the HCF behavior of metallic materials is often explained by the anisotropic elasto-plastic behavior of individual grains leading to a highly heterogeneous distribution of plastic slip.Since fatigue crack initiation is a local phenomenon, intimately related to the plastic activity at the crystal scale, it seems relevant to rely on this kind of modeling to evaluate the mechanical quantities.A preliminary numerical study, based on experimental data drawn from the litterature, was conducted on an electrolytic copper using simulations of 2D polycrystalline aggregates. The effect of the loading path and small artificial defects on the mesoscopic mechanical responses have been analyzed separately. Moreover, the predictive capabilities of some fatigue criteria, relying on the mesoscopic mechanical responses, has been evaluated. It was shown that the macroscopic fatigue limits predicted by a probabilistic fatigue criterion are in accordance with the experimental trends observed in multiaxial fatigue or in the presence of small defects.An experimental campaign is undertaken on an austenitic steel 316L. Low cycle fatigue tests are conducted in order to characterize the elasto-plastic behavior of the material. Load-controled HCF tests, using both smooth specimens and specimens containing an artificial hemispherical surface defect, are carried out to estimate the fatigue limits under various loading conditions (tension, torsion, combined tension and torsion, biaxial tension) and several defect radii. To complete the characterization of the material, the microstructure is studied thanks to EBSD analyzes and the cristallographic texture is measured by X-ray diffraction. These experimental data are used to reproduce, with FE simulations, the HCF tests on 2D and 3D microstructures representative of the austenitic steel. The heterogeneity of the mesoscopic mechanical quantities relevant in fatigue are discussed in relation to the modeling. The results from the FE models are then used along with the probabilistic mesomechanics approach to quantify the defect size effect for several loading paths. The relevance, with respect to the experimental observations, of the predicted fatigue strength distributions is assessed.
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Raphaël Guerchais. Influence d'accidents géométriques et du mode de chargement sur le comportement en fatigue à grand nombre de cycles d'un acier inoxydable austénitique 316L. Mécanique des matériaux [physics.class-ph]. Ecole nationale supérieure d'arts et métiers - ENSAM, 2014. Français. ⟨NNT : 2014ENAM0020⟩. ⟨tel-01086613⟩

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