Identification des risques de perte de biodiversité face aux pressions anthropiques et au changement climatique à l’horizon 2100 : Application de la conservation dynamique au territoire des Alpes-Maritimes

Abstract : The work aims at understanding how the land transformation and climatic change synergy could affect the Alpes-Maritimes biodiversity. This thesis contains four chapters. In the first chapter, the purpose is to provide the conceptual basis and the framework that support the scientific foundations of this thesis and the main conceptual definitions of the studied problematic. In the second chapter, the purpose is to study the artificialization process in the French Riviera area, its probable potential dispersion, the conditions and the factors involved in the phenomenon in order to give an intuitively understanding of the landscape transformation and their principal trend. The landscape transformation of the last 40 years has been studied with the aim of identifying the spatial transition rules that have been introduced in the cellular automata model. We present a synthesis of landscape transformation in the French Riviera up to 2050 and 2100. The resulting scenarios provide information about future urban expansion according to historic behavior and the evolutionary patterns. The results of this part show that urban surfaces could double by 2050 and triplicated by 2100 compared with 2011. In the third chapter we assess the biodiversity loss according to land use dynamic and climate change. We first defined the ecosystem diversity by the landscape units. The landscape units are composed by the different ecological factors that have had an influence on ecosystems repartition like geomorphology, soil, climate, and vegetation. Then, we studied how landscape transformation could affect the biodiversity in the future by the spatial superposition of the first and second chapter results. Next, we realized a bioclimatic calibration for the landscape units with the aim of understanding the limits of ecological tolerance to the climatic conditions and the different ecological conditions like geomorphology, soil, and aspect. The bioclimatic calibration of the landscape units has allowed the definition of climatic change impact on ecosystem biodiversity for 2050 and 2100.The synergy between climatic change impact and landscape transformation shows that almost 30% (68 ecosystem expressions) of Alpes-Maritimes biodiversity could be affected at the end of the XXIst century, and at least five ecosystems expressions could disappear for 2100 due to both forces or some of these driving forces.In the fourth chapter we propose a method that allows the integration of climatic change impacts and landscape transformation on conservation process and politic assessment. Moreover, this chapter proposes the possibility to integrate both phenomena into the ecological networks structuration, especially into “Trame verte et bleue” in France.
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Guillermo Hinojos Mendoza. Identification des risques de perte de biodiversité face aux pressions anthropiques et au changement climatique à l’horizon 2100 : Application de la conservation dynamique au territoire des Alpes-Maritimes. Architecture, aménagement de l'espace. Ecole Nationale Supérieure des Mines de Paris, 2014. Français. ⟨NNT : 2014ENMP0026⟩. ⟨tel-01123766v2⟩

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