Analyse par microtomographie aux rayons X de l'effondrement capillaire dans les matériaux granulaires

Abstract : This thesis deals with hydromechanical couplings in soils and more particularly focusing on the capillary collapse phenomenon. Although thoroughly studied at macroscopic scale in fine soils, the mechanisms governing capillary collapse in granular soils have been less observed.At first, the results concern the capacity to reproduce and to observe the phenomenon of capillary collapse at the scale of the specimen, called also the macroscopic scale.Thus, one of the first important objectives of this project concerned the preparation method of the specimens, which have to be loose enough to observe this phenomenon. The collapse potential, determined here by the one-dimensional collapse test, decreases with the mechanical stress. Moreover, when the quantity of water is controlled, incremental strains of specimens arise whatever the imbibition dynamic.To complement existing data, an experimental program was carried out using X-ray computed tomography (X-ray CT), a relevant tool to obtain 3D informations at grain scale. In combination with Volumetric Digital Image Correlation (V-DIC), X-ray CT also makes it possible to get information at a mesoscopic scale, at which the use of continuum mechanics still remains relevant. In this work, both microscopic and mesoscopic analyses have been carried out on a partially saturated sand subjected to gradual controlled imbibition in an oedometric cell.Local heterogeneities of strains and water contents appear during the imbibition, which are principally explained by the effect of gravity and by an inhomogeneity of the initial density.However, in spite of the existence of those localisations, by comparing the analyses at the mesoscopic and at the macroscopic scale, we show that measurements performed at the scale of the specimen are representative of the local behaviour of the material
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Jean-François Bruchon. Analyse par microtomographie aux rayons X de l'effondrement capillaire dans les matériaux granulaires. Mécanique des matériaux [physics.class-ph]. Université Paris-Est, 2014. Français. ⟨NNT : 2014PEST1007⟩. ⟨tel-01124287⟩

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