Algorithmes de suivi de cible mobile pour les réseaux de capteurs sans fils

Abstract : Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN) are a set of tiny autonomous and interconnected devices. These Sensors are scattered in a region of interest to collect information about the surrounding environment depending on the intended application. Nowadays, sensors allow handling more complex data such as multimedia flow. Thus, we observe the emergence of Wireless Multimedia Sensor Networks opening a wider range of applications. In this work, we focus on tracking moving target in these kinds of networks. Target tracking is defined as a two-stage application: detection and localization of the target through its evolution inside an area of interest. This application can be very useful. For example, the presence of an intruder can be detected and its position inside a sensitive area reported, elderly or sick persons carrying sensors can be tracked anytime and so on. Unlike classical monitoring systems, WSN are more flexible and more easy to set up. Moreover, due to their versatility and autonomy they can be used in hostile regions, inaccessible for human. However, these kinds of networks have some limitations: wireless links are not reliable and data processing and transmission are greedy processes in term of energy. To overcome the energy constraint, only the sensors located in target pathway should be activated. Thus, the question is : how to select these sensors to obtain the best compromise between the tracking precision and the energy consumption? This is the question we are trying to answer in this dissertation. Firstly, we focus on communicating targets which have the ability to transmit signals and greatly facilitate the tracking process. The challenge here is to relay the information between the concerned sensors. In order to deal with this challenge, we use a deployment strategy based on virtual forces (VFA: Virtual Forces Algorithm) associated to a distributed tracking algorithm implemented in a cluster-based network. Secondly, we handle a more complex and more frequent case of non-communicating targets. The objective is to detect the presence of such target using movement sensors. We propose the deployment of an heterogeneous wireless sensor networks composed of movement sensors used to detect the target and camera sensors used to locate it. When the target is detected the information is sent to the camera sensors which decide whether to activate or not their cameras based on probabilistic criteria which include the camera orientation angle. Finally, as our last contribution, we specifically focus on target mobility models. These models help us to predict target behaviour and refine the sensor activation process. We use the Extended Kalamn filter as prediction model combined with a change detection mechanism named CuSum (Cumulative Summuray). This mechanism allows to efficiently compute the future target coordinates, and to select which sensors to activate
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Ibtissem Boulanouar. Algorithmes de suivi de cible mobile pour les réseaux de capteurs sans fils. Autre [cs.OH]. Université Paris-Est, 2014. Français. ⟨NNT : 2014PEST1077⟩. ⟨tel-01124323⟩

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