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Analyse régionale des aléas maritimes extrêmes

Abstract : The knowledge of the probability of occurrence of oceano-Meteorological extremes is essential to prevent risks of coastal flooding or to build coastal protections or off-Shore structures. In particular, the concept of return level is frequently used in coastal engineering to design protection structures. These levels, whose return periods of interest generally lie between 100 and 1000 years, are usually estimated by a local statistical analysis, from data observed at a unique site. However, the period of observation is generally limited, which can imply high uncertainties for high return levels. Regional frequency analysis is a possible solution to reduce uncertainties inherent to local analyses. The principle is to exploit the information of sites of observation from a homogeneous region, where extremes are supposed to share a similar probabilistic behavior. Thus, regional frequency analysis can estimate return levels more accurately than a local analysis. However, its application to the marine field being relatively limited and recent, several methodological questions are still unsolved, such as the formation of homogeneous regions or the dependence between sites. The scientific objective of this thesis is thus to develop some methodological points of regional frequency analysis, in the framework of extreme marine hazards. The following questions are tackled:• Sampling of extremes for regional analysis, from the storms detected through a spatiotemporal declustering procedure.• Formation of homogeneous regions from a method based on the identification of the typical storms footprints.• Consideration of the dependence between sites of observation, through the building of a model allowing, for example, to assess the regional effective duration or the regional return period of a storm.• Specification and estimation of the regional distribution, with the incorporation of influent covariables, such as the season of occurrence or the direction for waves.• Comparison between regional and local analyses, especially through the uncertainties on the estimated extremes and the ability to model the potential outliers. These aspects are illustrated on significant wave height data and skew surge data located in the Northeast Atlantic, the Eastern Channel and the North Sea. At the same time, the industrial objective of this work is to contribute to guarantee the safety of EDF structures against the risk of coastal flooding. This can be achieved through the exploration of new techniques of estimation of extreme marine hazards such as regional frequency analysis, which allows in particular a better representation of outliers
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Submitted on : Saturday, March 7, 2015 - 1:32:50 AM
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  • HAL Id : tel-01127291, version 1



Jérôme Weiss. Analyse régionale des aléas maritimes extrêmes. Mécanique des fluides [physics.class-ph]. Université Paris-Est, 2014. Français. ⟨NNT : 2014PEST1066⟩. ⟨tel-01127291⟩



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