Analyse morphologique et biomécanique des articulations scapulo-humérale et scapulo-thoracique

Abstract : Existence of a full thickness rotator cuff tear is really common in the general population with prevalence near 20%. This prevalence increases with age as the existence of asymptomatic cuff tear. How can we explain that tendinous injuries do not cause symptoms?The essential action of the rotator cuff is to center the humeral head in front of the glenoid cavity in order to enable a maximal action of the deltoid muscle. This centering action is still possible in case of supra-spinatus tendon tear and the shoulder can keep a satisfying function if equilibrium is conserved between the anterior cuff (Sub-scapularis muscle) and the posterior cuff (Infra-spinatus and Teres Minor muscles). How can we explain that supra-spinatus tears, even small, can induce functional impairment of the shoulder?There is a real dissociation between anatomy and clinic for the rotator cuff tears and the clinical expression of cuff tears is multifactorial and variable. It depends of the size of the tear and its evolution, of the existence of a sub-acromial bursitis and of the existence of a long head biceps tendinopathy.Comparison between symptomatic and asymptomatic subjects which present a rotator cuff tear permitted to show the importance of the periscapular muscles for the understanding of the rotator cuff tears. Indeed, the function of the periscapular muscles is to orientate the scapula and the glenoid during arm movements. When periscapular muscles are altered, there are anomalies in the scapular orientation which are called scapular dyskinesis.In previous works, we studied the feasibility of pseudo-kinematic studies of the scapula during arm elevation according to the thorax coordinate system derived from low-dose EOS® stereoradiographs. However, this method which was based on the location of specific scapular bony landmarks on each stereoradiographs, presented a low reproducibility and was difficult to use in clinical conditions.The aim of this Thesis was first to optimize this promising method In order to obtain a functional quantitative analysis of the scapula reliable and reproducible. Then, we would like to use this method in-vivo in order to assess the orientation of the scapula during arm elevation on pathologic subjects.
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Xavier Ohl. Analyse morphologique et biomécanique des articulations scapulo-humérale et scapulo-thoracique. Biomécanique [physics.med-ph]. Ecole nationale supérieure d'arts et métiers - ENSAM, 2014. Français. ⟨NNT : 2014ENAM0051⟩. ⟨tel-01127402⟩

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