Contribution à la reconstruction de surfaces complexes à partir d'un grand flot de données non organisées pour la métrologie 3D.

Abstract : Complex surfaces exhibit real challenges in regard to their design specification, their manufacturing, their measurement and the evaluation of their manufacturing defects. They are classified according to their geometric/shape complexity as well as to their required tolerance. Thus, the manufacturing and measurement processes used are selected accordingly. In order to transcribe significant information from the measured data, a data processing scheme is essential. Here, processing involves surface reconstruction in the aim of reconstituting the underlying geometry and topology to the points and extracting the necessary metrological information (form and/or dimensional errors). For the category of aspherical surfaces, where a mathematical model is available, the processing of the data, which are not necessarily organized, is done by fitting/associating the aspherical model to the data. The sought precision in optics is typically nanometric. In this context, we propose the L-BFGS optimization algorithm, first time used in metrological applications and which allows solving unconstrained, non-linear optimization problems precisely, automatically and fast. The L-BFGS method remains efficient and performs well even in the presence of very large amounts of data.In the category of general freeform surfaces and particularly turbine blades, the manufacturing, measurement and data processing are all at a different scale and require sub-micrometric precision. Freeform surfaces are generally not defined by a mathematical formula but are rather represented using parametric models such as B-Splines and NURBS. We expose a detailed state-of-the-art review of existing reconstruction algorithms in this field and then propose a new active contour deformation of B-Splines approach. The algorithm is independent of problems related to initialization and initial parameterization. Consequently, it is a new algorithm with promising results. We then establish a thorough study and a series of tests to show the advantages and limitations of our approach on examples of closed curves in the plane. We conclude the study with perspectives regarding improvements of the method and its extension to surfaces in 3D.
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Nadim El Hayek. Contribution à la reconstruction de surfaces complexes à partir d'un grand flot de données non organisées pour la métrologie 3D.. Mécanique des matériaux [physics.class-ph]. Ecole nationale supérieure d'arts et métiers - ENSAM, 2014. Français. ⟨NNT : 2014ENAM0055⟩. ⟨tel-01127418⟩

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