Towards high precision internal camera calibration

Victoria Rudakova 1, 2
2 IMAGINE [Marne-la-Vallée]
LIGM - Laboratoire d'Informatique Gaspard-Monge, ENPC - École des Ponts ParisTech
Abstract : This dissertation focuses on internal camera calibration and, especially, on its high-precision aspects. Two main threads are followed and examined: lens chromatic aberration correction and estimation of camera intrinsic parameters. For the chromatic aberration problem, we follow a path of digital post-processing of the image in order to get rid from the color artefacts caused by dispersion phenomena of the camera lens system, leading to a noticeable color channels misalignment. In this context, the main idea is to search for a more general correction model to realign color channels than what is commonly used - different variations of radial polynomial. The latter may not be general enough to ensure stable correction for all types of cameras. Combined with an accurate detection of pattern keypoints, the most precise chromatic aberration correction is achieved by using a polynomial model, which is able to capture physical nature of color channels misalignment. Our keypoint detection yields an accuracy up to 0.05 pixels, and our experiments show its high resistance to noise and blur. Our aberration correction method, as opposed to existing software, demonstrates a final geometrical residual of less than 0.1 pixels, which is at the limit of perception by human vision. When referring to camera intrinsics calculation, the question is how to avoid residual error compensation which is inherent for global calibration methods, the main principle of which is to estimate all camera parameters simultaneously - the bundle adjustment. Detachment of the lens distortion from camera intrinsics becomes possible when the former is compensated separately, in advance. This can be done by means of the recently developed calibration harp, which captures distortion field by using the straightness measure of tightened strings in different orientations. Another difficulty, given a distortion-compensated calibration image, is how to eliminate a perspective bias. The perspective bias occurs when using centers of circular targets as keypoints, and it gets more amplified with increase of view angle. In order to avoid modelling each circle by a conic function, we rather incorporate conic affine transformation function into the minimization procedure for homography estimation. Our experiments show that separate elimination of distortion and perspective bias is effective and more stable for camera's intrinsics estimation than global calibration method
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Victoria Rudakova. Towards high precision internal camera calibration. Signal and Image Processing. Université Paris-Est, 2014. English. ⟨NNT : 2014PEST1039⟩. ⟨tel-01133601⟩

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