Prise en compte de la perception tactile dans la conception de représentations d’oeuvres d’art pour les personnes en situation de handicap visuel

Abstract : Braille allows the access to the written documents, but what about access to images for blind and partially-sighted people? This is the purpose of our research project in partnership with the Alain Mikli International group which assigned us to design and develop tactile representations of pictorial and photographic works of art. Among them, travelling exhibitions, called Touch and See, were designed in 2001. This happened after a meeting between blind children and Yann Arthus-Bertrand. This initiative is grounded in a social and legislative context that aims to improve the autonomy of disabled people. Consequently, in 2001, the « Tourisme et Handicap » and the « loi du 11 février 2005 » both appeared. This law is addressed to museums in which audio and/or tactile visits are proposed and becoming very popular. However, the tactile representations are still not standardized. Research on universal design approaches suggests that our work is positioned upstream from these processes. Moreover, our design process proposal must integrate tactile perception by using intermediate representations. Indeed, visually-impaired users have some specific needs because of their perceptual abilities. Our main research question is based on these remarks. We question the way in which tactile representations can be designed for these people by suggesting two hypotheses : on the one hand, we formalize this research field by modelling an experimental approach which allows us to generate knowledge and, on the other hand, we describe two product concepts that allow designers to achieve better knowledge of visually-impaired users. These concepts were tested and validated by four experiments. We have modeled an experimental design approach in three steps : transferring of knowledge, designing of « good tactile readability and understanding » models, and forward planning of two iterative cycles of design/assessment. We have elaborated two concepts : the first, concerns the real size of a painting represented in egocentered manner and the second concept suggests adding tactile contrasts which are among the elements represented in relief. This approach and the concepts constitute the contributions of this thesis which have been implemented during the design of an audio-tactile installation at the « musée du quai Branly » in Paris.
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Estelle Costes. Prise en compte de la perception tactile dans la conception de représentations d’oeuvres d’art pour les personnes en situation de handicap visuel. Sciences de l'ingénieur [physics]. Arts et Métiers Paristech, Paris, 2012. Français. ⟨NNT : 2012ENAM0002⟩. ⟨tel-01134735⟩

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