The use of biofumigation crops as an alternative to Methyl Bromide for the management of the root-knot nematode in greenhouse cucumber production

Abstract : Root-knot nematodes remain one of the most serious problems faced ‎by ‎greenhouse farmers of Lebanon and the Middle East region. In the past, soil fumigation ‎with methyl bromide has been considered as ‎the best control measure against root-knot ‎nematodes. However, in the light of the global phase out of methyl bromide, finding ‎efficient and viable alternatives is an essential necessity.‎The objective of this study is to evaluate the efficacy of the two biofumigation ‎crops ‎Oil Radish (Raphanus sativus oleifera) and Arugula (Eruca vesicaria sativa) applied ‎with ‎and without plastic tarp, separately and in combination with Oxamyl in the ‎management of ‎the root-knot nematodes in greenhouse cucumber crops. Additionally, this ‎study aimed at ‎assessing the financial feasibility of the biofumigation technique with the ‎two cops used ‎and the final profitability of these green manure crops in terms of cost to ‎benefit ratio as ‎compared to methyl bromide.‎For this purpose, three field experiments were carried out in ‎commercial ‎greenhouses situated on the coastal zone of Lebanon.‎In both experiments A & B consistent results were recorded in terms of production ‎of ‎significantly higher yields and reduction of nematode population with the ‎biofumigation ‎crops used whether with or without plastic cover, as compared to untreated ‎fallow.‎As to the results achieved by the biofumigation crops with respect to methyl ‎bromide, ‎in experiment A yield produced by methyl bromide was significantly higher than ‎oil radish ‎with plastic cover. However, no significant difference was found between ‎reduction of ‎nematode population resulting from methyl bromide and oil radish with plastic ‎cover. ‎Difference was significant between methyl bromide and oil radish without plastic ‎cover in ‎both yield and reduction of nematodes.‎In experiment B no significant difference was observed in neither yield nor ‎reduction ‎of nematode population between any of the two biofumigation crops used with ‎plastic ‎cover and methyl bromide. These differences were significantly in favor of methyl ‎bromide ‎only when oil radish was used without plastic cover.‎In experiment C where Vydate (Oxamyl) was incorporated at the rate of 1 liter ‎per ‎‎1,000 m2 to all treatments, there was no significant difference in neither yield nor ‎reduction ‎of nematode population between any of the two biofumigation crops used with or ‎without ‎plastic cover.‎Cost-benefit analysis made on all treatments applied in the 3 experiments ‎showed ‎that in all cases, all treatments applied, whether chemical, non-chemical (with or ‎without ‎plastic cover) or in combination have produced higher net profits than methyl ‎bromide, ‎even when yield produced by methyl bromide was significantly higher.‎Use of plastic for covering oil radish has generally produced ‎better results in terms ‎of ‎production of higher yields, better reduction of soil ‎populations of root-knot nematodes‏‎ ‎and ‎‏leading to ‎‏reasonable increases of net profits.‎Based on these findings and in the light of global phase out of methyl bromide, ‎it ‎can be concluded that the use of oil radish and arugula as biofumigation crops with ‎plastic ‎cover can be considered as ‎an alternative management tool for the root-knot ‎nematode in ‎greenhouse cucumber ‎production under Lebanese conditions.‎
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Garabed Haroutunian. The use of biofumigation crops as an alternative to Methyl Bromide for the management of the root-knot nematode in greenhouse cucumber production. Agronomy. AgroParisTech, 2013. English. ⟨NNT : 2013AGPT0025⟩. ⟨tel-01134970⟩

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