Diversité des réponses écophysiologiques et moléculaires pour un complexe de frênes européens (Fraxinus angustifolia Vahl et Fraxinus excelsior L. et leurs hybrides) face à la contrainte hydrique

Abstract : The latest climate change scenarios predict a rise in mean temperature in Europe of 2 to 4°C for 2099 (IPCC, 2007), associated with extreme climatic events such as severe droughts. Knowing adaptation capabilities of tree species is crucial for understanding their responses and forest ecosystem fate in the near future. Our study object is a species complex inside the Fraxinus genus (ash, Oleaceae). In France, F. excelsior and F. angustifolia are autochthonous, form natural hybrid populations and show remarkable phenotypic and ecological plasticity. This could promote the emergence of new individuals (genotypes) more able to deal with fluctuating environments. Our objective is to characterise the capability of adaptation of different Fraxinus populations, representing the three statuses (F.excelsior, F.angustifolia and hybrids) under abiotic constraints (water constraint). To solve this issue, we examine in a low water constraint experiment (-0.9 MPa) ecophysiological and genetic response, using saplings. A second and more severe water constraint experiment (-4 MPa) was used to investigate ash response to the loss of hydraulic conductivity. The most noticeable result was an intermediate and highly variable behaviour of hybrid ash populations in the two experiments (A, gs, WUEi, PLC) linked with they respective introgression degree (closer to F.excelsior or F.angustifolia). This hybrid trees could be used for foresters as a resource and insurance against catastrophic forest stand decline, for a future climate.
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Romain Joseph. Diversité des réponses écophysiologiques et moléculaires pour un complexe de frênes européens (Fraxinus angustifolia Vahl et Fraxinus excelsior L. et leurs hybrides) face à la contrainte hydrique. Sciences agricoles. AgroParisTech, 2013. Français. ⟨NNT : 2013AGPT0088⟩. ⟨tel-01136233⟩

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