Effets d’un régime hyperprotéique sur l’écosystème intestinal et d’un mélange d’acides aminés sur la cicatrisation de la muqueuse intestinale.

Abstract : In industrialized countries, protein intake is largely higher than the recommended dietary allowance (RDA). Furthermore, high protein diets are used for their slimming effect by obese or overweight people. However, little is known regarding to the consequences of a high protein diet on the large intestinal ecosystem. We thus study the influence of a high protein diet on the microbiota, on the endoluminal composition of the large intestine and on the butyrate metabolism by isolated colonocytes. Rats received during 15 days either a high protein diet (53% of proteins) or a normo protein diet (14% of proteins). We observed that the quantity of major bacterial groups Clostridium coccoides and Clostridium leptum, but also Faecalibacterium prausnitzii was reduced in the microbiota of the large intestine together with modifications of its biodiversity. In the same time, the quantities of short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) and branched-chain fatty acids, final products of bacterial fermentation of amino acids, were increased. However, the expression of monocarboxylic acid transporters and butyrate oxidation in colonocytes remained unchanged, in association with minor changes of the SCFA concentrations due to marked increase of the weight of the large intestine content. We then observed an increase in the amount of SCFA in the feces. These phenomena would allow homeostatic metabolism of butyrate in colonocytes, in relationship with its crucial role on the colonic epitheliumIn. In the second part of this thesis, we have tested the effects of a mixture of amino acids (Thr, Met and Glu) on the colonic mucosa healing after colitis induced by DSS (dextran sodium sulphate); a model to study intestinal inflammatory bowel diseases largely used. Optimization of intestinal mucosa healing is more and more considered as a therapeutic goal. Colitis was induced in rats by 5% (w/v) DSS during 6 days, then at the end of the treatment with DSS, animals received either the amino acid mixture or Ala as iso-nitrogenous control, during 3, 7 or 10 days. We observed that 10 days amino acid mixture supplementation was able to improve the colonic mucosal healing, with modification of the protein synthesis rate, without however changes in the resolution of inflammation. Our results suggest that the supplementation with the amino acid mixture improve the mucosal healing after experimental colitis.
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Xinxin Liu. Effets d’un régime hyperprotéique sur l’écosystème intestinal et d’un mélange d’acides aminés sur la cicatrisation de la muqueuse intestinale.. Médecine humaine et pathologie. AgroParisTech, 2013. Français. ⟨NNT : 2013AGPT0063⟩. ⟨tel-01136575⟩

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