Caractérisation des eaux usées au Liban : impact sur le fonctionnement des stations d’épuration

Abstract : In Lebanon, 65 % of the population lives in Beirut and Mount Lebanon particularly along the coastal area and a narrow band of the western side of the Lebanon Mount. This occupation generates a strong anthropic pressure on the water resources. Indeed approximately 330 mm3 of waste waters a year are rejected into the Mediterranean by 53 trunks distributed along the coastal towns. In fact, these wastewaters are released to natural media without any significant treatment and These effluents, released in great majority without treatment, are considered as the primary vector of the Mediterranean Sea pollution (MOE/UNDP/ECODIT, 2011).This study aimed at determining the quality of wastewaters in Lebanon and at establishing a comparison between the Lebanese (with respect to Beirut) and French (case of the urban area of Paris) contexts. A specific monitoring of wastewaters was led on 4 representative sampling sites of the area of Beirut and its suburbs (Al Ghadir sites, Beirut River, Antelias and Jounieh). Two sites were selected to follow the evolution of the wastewater quality both at the daily and weekly scale: Jounieh and Al Ghadir. In France, a series of campaigns were carried out on the main trunks of several wastewater treatment plants, e.g., Marne Aval, Seine Amont, Seine Aval and Seine Centre, in the Seine Centre WWTP (within the primary and secondary treatments), and in the Seine River. Then the results in Beirut and Paris were confronted to determine the environmental impact of the installation of treatments adapted to the Lebanese effluents.Contamination levels for the water quality parameters were comparable for the punctual sampling between the Al Ghadir and Jounieh watersheds. However, the levels found in Al Ghadir and Jounieh were higher than those of Antelias and Beirut River. In addition, continuous monitoring helped to highlight the levels of TSS, VSS, BOD5 and CODT were generally comparable at both sites: Al Ghadir and Jounieh. The comparison with the Parisian trunks showed significant differences for TSS, BOD5 and VSS, these parameters were significantly higher on Lebanese sites. For CODT, concentrations were comparable between the two countries. By comparing the total ETM (Cr, Zn, Cu, Cd and Pb), we found that Cu concentrations in Parisian trunks were higher than those of Lebanese Al Ghadir and Jounieh watersheds. For lead and zinc concentrations were comparable between the two countries. Finally, the concentrations of cadmium and chromium were much higher in Beirut than in Paris. Trace metal flows to the Mediterranean Sea from the Al Ghadir site were of 20,7; 20,8; 2,42; 0,6; and 1,5 kg/day for CrT, ZnT, CuT, CdT and PbT respectively, and for Jounieh they were of 0,66; 3,7; 0,38; 0,045 and 0,33 kg/day, respectively. Based on the effectiveness of the Parisian WWTPs, released levels would decrease by 90-98 % for TSS, 84-95 % for CODt and 63-97 % depending on the ETM concerned
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Elias Maatouk. Caractérisation des eaux usées au Liban : impact sur le fonctionnement des stations d’épuration. Ingénierie de l'environnement. Université Paris-Est, 2014. Français. ⟨NNT : 2014PEST1110⟩. ⟨tel-01137493⟩

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