Mécanique de la rupture et endommagement d’un alliage d’aluminium 2219 T87 pour application aérospatiale

Abstract : The purpose of this work is to use fracture mechanics and damage model to assess the structural integrity of the ARIANE 5 tank containing defects. These flaws are usually assumed to be semi-elliptical surface cracks.This situation can be analysed using the FAD (Failure Assessment Diagram) approach. This method is based on the stress intensity factor K and a material fracture toughness (Kmat) which can be the plane strain fracture toughness (KIC) for a conservative prediction. A more realistic prediction is achieved by employing the integral J and a material parameter derived from crack resistance curve JR - ∆a . This curve is obtained by using cracked test samples with different geometries (CT, SENT and SCT). The local approach to fractureis an alternative method to assess failure in particular in the case of large scale plasticity. In this case, the previous method is not able to give accurate predictions. Analyses based on local approach concepts requirean accurate evaluation of strain and stress fields near the crack tip. It is therefore important to take plastic anisotropy into account to model the plastic behavior of the rolled sheets. In this work this is done using amacroscopic phenomenological model. The parameters of this model are determined by minimizing of the difference between the simulation results and the test measurements for smooth and notched tensile test samples. The local approach to fracture is also based on the understanding of the failure micromechanismsof materials. Ductile fracture of metallic materials can be described as a three stage process. The first is void initiation at inclusions, the second is void growth and the third is void coalescence. Nucleation of defectsat Al2Cu inclusions is the main damage mechanism. In this work, the proposed model for ductile fracture is based on the Gurson model modified by Needleman and Tvergaard (GTN). This model is extended to account for fracture anisotropic by considering two nucleation gaussian laws respectively for rolling andtransverse directions.
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Christophe Le Guyader. Mécanique de la rupture et endommagement d’un alliage d’aluminium 2219 T87 pour application aérospatiale. Mécanique des matériaux [physics.class-ph]. Ecole Nationale Supérieure des Mines de Paris, 2014. Français. ⟨NNT : 2014ENMP0046⟩. ⟨tel-01142080⟩

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