Comportement mécanique longitudinal et transverse, micro-mécanismes de déformation et effet de la température sur la fibre Kevlar® 29

Abstract : Designing safer and lighter vehicles is a major challenge for manufacturers. Nowadays, a vehicle needs to be eco-friendly and conciliate efficiency and energy-saving. Considering these requirements, tire materials are subject to change: high performance polymers are a good replacement, in terms of weight and dissipation, for traditional reinforcements such as drawn steel. For instance, aramid strands (1000 fibres) are used because the single fibre exhibits good mechanical properties such as its high modulus (85 GPa) conferred by its anisotropy or its high temperature resistance. The mechanical performance of a Kevlar® fibre is due to its different scale organisation : the primary (molecular chains held by covalent bonds), the secondary (pleated sheets held by interactions) and the tertiary structure (sheets stacked together). Because of the cooling thermodynamics during the fabrication process, the 15 microns diameter fibre seems to have a skin/core structure with punctual more or less critical defects. To go further in the understanding of the complex structure, the contribution of the skin/core structure in the mechanical performance in the longitudinal and the transverse directions is investigated through a multi-disciplinary approach made of a numerical and an experimental study. During its use, an aramid single fibre undergoes cyclic multiaxial loading and harmful thermal treatments, at the origin of structural and mechanical properties modifications but also dissipative behaviour evolution, still misunderstood. To deal with these change in depth, an experimental and numerical multi-scale characterisation is used. Mechanical and thermal treatments are realised and their impact on the microstructure, on the deformation micromechanisms and on the mechanical properties including the dissipative behaviour are investigated. Limiting use values in terms of temperature, longitudinal and transverse stresses are highlighted in this work in order to understand modifications enhanced by the fibre life cycle.
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Judith Wollbrett-Blitz. Comportement mécanique longitudinal et transverse, micro-mécanismes de déformation et effet de la température sur la fibre Kevlar® 29. Mécanique des matériaux [physics.class-ph]. Ecole Nationale Supérieure des Mines de Paris, 2014. Français. ⟨NNT : 2014ENMP0062⟩. ⟨tel-01142223⟩

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