Fonctionnement et singularités du procédé de fusion laser sélective : Illustration par application à deux superalliages à base nickel et considérations énergétiques

Abstract : The selective laser melting (SLM) process is one of the many additive manufacturing processes that allow to rapidly build a part from a computer-aided design (CAD) file and from a powder bed. The work described here deals with the different parameters related to the process, namely the building platform stepping and the laser radiation and its interaction with the metallic matter. The first Ni-based superalloy studied here is Inconel 625 which has been subjected to a parametric study with an energetic approach. It was all about finding the maximum in the conversion of electromagnetic energy into thermal energy. Tensile tests validate the use of the energetic strategy for this alloy. The second studied alloy is Inconel 738 which is hardened by fine γ'-Ni3(Al,Ti) precipitates. Microstructure observations and differential thermal analysis reveal that the γ' precipitation is not complete when the alloy is processed by SLM. This leads to give clues for crack-free processing by adjusting the parameters and especially the preheating feature. Different heat treatments on SLMed materials have been investigated. It appears that the standard procedure applied on cast alloy to reach proper microstructure for good mechanical properties is not adapted to the SLMed alloy. New standards must be defined to comply with the initial out of equilibrium state. Last but not least, the manuscript gives information regarding the energetic use of the process which should be compared with the will of environmental impact reduction policy called by the process.
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Frédéric Royer. Fonctionnement et singularités du procédé de fusion laser sélective : Illustration par application à deux superalliages à base nickel et considérations énergétiques. Matériaux. Ecole Nationale Supérieure des Mines de Paris, 2014. Français. ⟨NNT : 2014ENMP0053⟩. ⟨tel-01142368⟩

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