Modélisation du fonctionnement biogéochimique de la Seine de l'agglomération parisienne à l'estuaire à différentes échelles temporelles

Abstract : Hydro-ecological models are essential to complete our knowledge of the functioning of aquatic systems. They can moreover be used to forecast the impact of new management strategies on the future water quality. The aim of this thesis is to use the hydro-ecological ProSe model to improve our understanding of the biogeochemical functioning of the Seine River downstream the Paris urban area. Simulated biogeochemical processes are first implemented, calibrated, and validated independently for the 2007-2012 period. For each one of these processes, appropriate methodologies are used. These methodologies include the direct use of experimentally obtained parameters, the upscaling of results from coupled laboratory experiments and stand-alone biogeochemical modelling, or the analysis of high frequency in-situ measurements. Different datasets, which are available at various time steps, allow the validation of these processes along the whole 220 km simulated stretch (from Paris to the entrance of the Seine River estuary). Once validated, the ProSe model is then used to assess the biogeochemical functioning of the Seine River along this highly anthropized stretch. The impact of pelagic and benthic processes on the different biogeochemical cycles (carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus) is quantified for different hydrological conditions, up- and downstream the major waste water treatment plant of the Paris urban area, which treats the effluents of over 5 million population equivalent. The model is then used to assess the effect of the monitoring frequency on the estimation of the water quality as defined by the European Water Framework Directive. The results highlight the importance of a detailed representation of physical processes in hydro-ecological models for a reliable simulation of in-river biogeochemical fluxes and of exchanges at the sediment-water interface. Having in mind the present targets of the improvement of the quality of water bodies, this work illustrates the importance of hydro-ecological modelling as an essential complement to water quality monitoring strategies.
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Lauriane Vilmin. Modélisation du fonctionnement biogéochimique de la Seine de l'agglomération parisienne à l'estuaire à différentes échelles temporelles. Hydrologie. Ecole Nationale Supérieure des Mines de Paris, 2014. Français. ⟨NNT : 2014ENMP0055⟩. ⟨tel-01142418⟩

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