Stratégies technologique et réglementaire de déploiement des filières bioénergies françaises

Abstract : French bioenergy consumption increased by 35 % over the last decade. It reached an 8.1% share in final energy demand by 2012. Bioenergy has been fostered for its many benefits as it is a renewable energy source that increases energy supply independence and that reduces greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions. This sector also maintains and provides job at local level and promotes agricultural and forestry economic development.But the sustainability of this development is now subject to uncertainties: economic performance in comparison to fossil fuels, biomass availability, technological choices, and level of incentives. In addition, it faces several controversial points. Firstly, rise in global biomass demand has implied a rise in prices and it has threatened existing uses, such as wood panel manufacturing in the French building sector and food supply at a world scale. Secondly, environmental performance has been criticized: biomass combustion could emit fine particulate matter and GHG emissions of current biofuel processes may be higher than initially assessed. Consequently, new bioenergy pathways, avoiding these controversies, could be promoted by the policy maker.This PhD thesis aims at assessing these uncertainties to elaborate technological and regulatory strategies for French bioenergy sector. So, we created a prospective model which precisely describes this sector and its current and future conversion pathways. It relies on linear programming optimization paradigm that calculates least cost technological trajectories, from 2010 to 2050. Bioenergy sector is modelled by a large number of constraints: availability and cost of biomass, technical, economic and environmental parameters of transformation processes, etc.In the first part, we describe the prospective approach. It consists in analysing precisely bioenergy pathways: the current structure, the controversial points and the promising processes. Then, we explicit the conception of the prospective model: its data and its assumptions.In the second part, four main strategic points of bioenergy sector are discussed. Firstly, we assess the level of demand that could be fulfilled according to two contrasting scenarios of French biomass availability. Technological mix is then analysed. Secondly, we investigate the consequences of a change in biofuel regulatory context and a reconsideration of their environmental benefits. Thirdly, bio-based chemistry development impact on bioenergy production is evaluated. Finally, biofuel technological strategies are studied with a Monte Carlo approach to enhance the comprehension of the economic and environmental conditions of technology deployment.
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Paul Hugues. Stratégies technologique et réglementaire de déploiement des filières bioénergies françaises. Ingénierie de l'environnement. Ecole Nationale Supérieure des Mines de Paris, 2015. Français. ⟨NNT : 2015ENMP0003⟩. ⟨tel-01144445⟩

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