Élaboration et caractérisation d'aérogels superisolants thermiques hybrides à base de silice et de polyuréthane

Abstract : Aerogels are light and mesoporous materials that appear very promising in terms of thermal insulation. They could play a great part in the future in the reduction of thermal losses through building and appliances envelopes. In this context, the goal of this thesis work is the development of a material combining a very low thermal conductivity and mechanical properties that are compatible with a use in this application sector, via an organic-inorganic hybridization process between a superinsulating - but fragile - silica aerogel, and a very insulating polyurethane aerogel with higher resistance to mechanical stress. In the first part, high performance silica and polyurethane aerogels have each been synthetized via a sol-gel route in mild conditions and in a reaction medium mainly consisting in acetonitrile, then dried in supercritical CO2, and characterized in terms of structure, morphology, texture, thermal conductivity and uniaxial compression. A work on the polyurethane aerogel formulation led to improved thermo-mechanical compromise (thermal conductivity 0.018 W.m-1.K-1, elastic modulus 7.8 MPa) . The mineral and organic matrixes were then coupled, at first in the form of composites (0.018 W.m-1.K-1, 6.1 MPa) based on a dry granular silica aerogel bead. An hybridization process was implemented between the silica and polyurethane phases, that included two successive steps of functionalization of the silica matrix (co-condensation followed by surface grafting and controlled growth of a secondary organic network). The obtained hybrid study was initiated via SEM and XPS analysis and showed a good cohesion at the interface between the polyurethane and the modified silica matrixes.
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Noémie Diascorn. Élaboration et caractérisation d'aérogels superisolants thermiques hybrides à base de silice et de polyuréthane. Thermique [physics.class-ph]. Ecole Nationale Supérieure des Mines de Paris, 2014. Français. ⟨NNT : 2014ENMP0079⟩. ⟨tel-01151554⟩

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