Prise en compte d'un modèle de sol multi-couches pour la simulation multi-milieux à l'échelle européenne des polluants organiques persistants

Abstract : Persitent Organic Pollutants (POPs) are toxic substances that bioaccumulate in the food chain. Once emitted in the atmosphere, they are transported by the wind and deposited on soil. Since they are persistent, they can be reemited from soil to atmosphere by volatilization and travel over very long distances. This process is called grasshopper effect. Thus, POPs may be found at significant levels far from their emission source. It is necessary to understand the transport and fate of these pollutants in order to support the decision making process and reduce human exposure to POPs. Regulations over the last decades lead to a decrease of anthropogenic emissions and subsequent decrease of atmospheric concentration. In this context, the soil is no longer a sink of POPs but can be a source to the atmosphere. Many numeric models aim to study the behavior of POPs in the environment. Most of them consider soil compartment as a homogeneous box, leading to an underestimation of reemissions. Then, it appears of great importance to develop more realistic soil models. The objective of my thesis was to develop such a model, with vertical transport within the soil. This model was evaluated against measured concentration soil profile. We also conducted a sensitivity analysis to identify the key parameters involved in the process of reemissions. Then, the soil model was coupled with an atmospheric transport model. A case study was finally undertaken to estimate the impacts of reemissions on global-mass balance of POPs at European scale
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Vincent Loizeau. Prise en compte d'un modèle de sol multi-couches pour la simulation multi-milieux à l'échelle européenne des polluants organiques persistants. Milieux et Changements globaux. Université Paris-Est, 2014. Français. ⟨NNT : 2014PEST1168⟩. ⟨tel-01163805⟩

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