Analyses expérimentales et modélisation numérique de l'ostéogenèse au sein d'un implant poreux en titane.

Abstract : Recently, in the tissue reconstruction field, bone substitutes or scaffolds have been used as an alternative to autograft. The complexity of osteogenesis within a scaffold makes its experimental observation difficult and the development and optimization of scaffolds are thus far from being complete. In addition to animal experiments, it is then necessary to develop numerical models to better understand such process. The objective of this work was to develop a numerical model able to reproduce osteogenesis within a porous titanium scaffold implanted on the non-toothed part of a ewe hemimandible for 12 weeks. Therefore, this thesis was based on both an experimental and a numerical approach, which constituted the key element of the project. Indeed, most of the existing models have not been validated or have been validated using experiments performed on small animals (i.e. rabbit, rat) since their size and cost make the protocol easier. Nevertheless, unlike the sheep, their bone regeneration process is quite different from human's. The study was organized into three tasks. First, animal experiments were carried out in collaboration with Dr. Thomas Schouman (Pitié-Salpêtrière hospital) and OBL, a french company manufacturing the porous titanium scaffolds. Then, a numerical model describing cellular activity within the scaffold during the 12 weeks of implantation was developed. Finally, histological and micro-tomographic analyses and mechanical tests performed on each hemimandible have enabled to: i) quantify the osteoconductive potential of the scaffold and ii) validate the numerical results.
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Mary Schmitt. Analyses expérimentales et modélisation numérique de l'ostéogenèse au sein d'un implant poreux en titane.. Biomécanique [physics.med-ph]. Ecole nationale supérieure d'arts et métiers - ENSAM, 2015. Français. ⟨NNT : 2015ENAM0011⟩. ⟨tel-01179783⟩

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