Réalisation expérimentale de l'effet Hong-Ou-Mandel atomique

Raphael Lopes 1
1 Laboratoire Charles Fabry / Optique atomique
LCF - Laboratoire Charles Fabry
Abstract : In this thesis, we report the first realisation of the Hong–Ou–Mandel experiment with massive particles in momentum space. This milestone experiment was originally performed in quantum optics: two photons arriving simultaneously at the input ports of a 50:50 beam-splitter always emerge together in one of the output ports. The effect leads to a reduction of coincidence counts which translates into a dip when particles are indistinguishable. We performed the experiment with metastable helium atoms where the specificities of the Micro-Channel-Plate detector allows one to recover the momentum vector of each individual atom.After listing the necessary tools to perform this experiment with atoms, the experimental sequence is discussed and the results are presented. In particular we measured a coincidence count reduction that cannot be explained through any simple classical model. This corresponds to the signature of a two-particle interference, and confirms that our atomic pair source produces beams which have highly correlated populations and are well mode matched. This opens the prospect of testing Bell’s inequalities involving mechanical observables of massive particles, such as momentum, using methods inspired by quantum optics. It also demonstrates a new way to produce and benchmark twin-atom pairs that may be of interest for quantum information processing.
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Raphael Lopes. Réalisation expérimentale de l'effet Hong-Ou-Mandel atomique. Optics [physics.optics]. Institut d’Optique Graduate School, 2015. English. ⟨NNT : 2015IOTA0001⟩. ⟨tel-01199886⟩

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