Analyse biomécanique de l'appui sportif : contributions méthodologiques et application au saut en kungfu wushu

Abstract : Sports biomechanics aims at better understanding performance mechanisms, to improve them while limiting injury risk. At elite level, stances are a key aspect of performance. Often used in gait analysis, inverse dynamics enables quantification of mechanical actions during motion. However, there are some limits to this method, two of which can become important when studying sports stances: soft tissue artifact and accuracy of dynamic wrenches. The first objective of this work is to propose methodological adaptations for inverse dynamics analysis of sports stances. Firstly, the benefit of the “mean joint centers” method, based on the use of rigid clusters, is shown for segment kinematics acquisition. Secondly, the influences of the sampling frequency and the differentiation method on the calculation of accelerations are evaluated. Thirdly, the validation of a personalized volumetric model enabling better estimation of segment inertial parameters than common proportional models is presented. The second objective of this work is the application of the methods proposed to the analysis of the ankle joint mechanical behavior during plyometric jumps, and to personalized evaluation of the lower limb injury risk in elite wushu athletes. These analyses have been performed in parallel to specific measures of athletes' characteristics, such as the ankle range of motion and the shear modulii of different structures of the triceps surae, using shear wave elastography. Perspectives for training application will be discussed, to address the evolution of training habits and personalized injury prevention.
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Submitted on : Wednesday, September 23, 2015 - 10:28:18 AM
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Léo Benouaich. Analyse biomécanique de l'appui sportif : contributions méthodologiques et application au saut en kungfu wushu. Biomécanique [physics.med-ph]. Ecole nationale supérieure d'arts et métiers - ENSAM, 2015. Français. ⟨NNT : 2015ENAM0010⟩. ⟨tel-01203475⟩

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