Effets de la fréquence et de la température sur les mécanismes de microplasticité en fatigue à grand et très grand nombre de cycles

Abstract : Nowadays there is a growing demand for the development of fast and robust fatigue life prediction methods in the very high cycle fatigue domain. In this way, ultrasonic fatigue technique which appeared in 1950 is very interesting for manufacturers. Because the typical frequency of these tests is 20 kHz, this technique is efficient to perform tests up to a very high number of cycles in a reasonable time (109 cycles are reached in 14 h). However, the frequency domain of these fatigue tests facilities raises the issue of the effect of frequency and more generally the validity of the obtained results for estimating fatigue life of structures loaded at frequencies three or four order of magnitude below ultrasonic frequencies. The objective of this work is to evaluate the effect of the loading frequency on the precursors of fatigue damage, namely the microplasticity at the grain scale. This thesis work deals with the case of polycrystalline pure copper loaded in fully reversed tensioncompression. To show the effect of frequency, the Wöhler or S-N curves were constructed at different frequencies. Then, the study focused on the mechanisms of microplasticity preceding crack initiation and several criteria were investigated: the morphologies of the slip bands and their locations in the microstructure, the thresholds of appearance of the slip bands, the evolution of the slip bands amount with the number of cycles, the distribution of the microplasticity in the grains, the dissipated energy during a fatigue cycle. Cross slip and vacancies production and diffusion are two mechanisms which play a part in the formation of slip bands and extrusions in surface. Their respective roles on the effects of frequency observed are discussed
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Nicolas Marti. Effets de la fréquence et de la température sur les mécanismes de microplasticité en fatigue à grand et très grand nombre de cycles. Mécanique des matériaux [physics.class-ph]. Ecole nationale supérieure d'arts et métiers - ENSAM, 2014. Français. ⟨NNT : 2014ENAM0041⟩. ⟨tel-01204787⟩

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