Machine Learning for Simplifying the Use of Cardiac Image Databases

Abstract : The recent growth of data in cardiac databases has been phenomenal. Cleveruse of these databases could help find supporting evidence for better diagnosis and treatment planning. In addition to the challenges inherent to the large quantity of data, the databases are difficult to use in their current state. Data coming from multiple sources are often unstructured, the image content is variable and the metadata are not standardised. The objective of this thesis is therefore to simplify the use of large databases for cardiology specialists withautomated image processing, analysis and interpretation tools. The proposed tools are largely based on supervised machine learning techniques, i.e. algorithms which can learn from large quantities of cardiac images with groundtruth annotations and which automatically find the best representations. First, the inconsistent metadata are cleaned, interpretation and visualisation of images is improved by automatically recognising commonly used cardiac magnetic resonance imaging views from image content. The method is based on decision forests and convolutional neural networks trained on a large image dataset. Second, the thesis explores ways to use machine learning for extraction of relevant clinical measures (e.g. volumes and masses) from3D and 3D+t cardiac images. New spatio-temporal image features are designed andclassification forests are trained to learn how to automatically segment the main cardiac structures (left ventricle and left atrium) from voxel-wise label maps. Third, a web interface is designed to collect pairwise image comparisons and to learn how to describe the hearts with semantic attributes (e.g. dilation, kineticity). In the last part of the thesis, a forest-based machinelearning technique is used to map cardiac images to establish distances and neighborhoods between images. One application is retrieval of the most similar images.
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Ján Margeta. Machine Learning for Simplifying the Use of Cardiac Image Databases. Signal and Image Processing. Ecole Nationale Supérieure des Mines de Paris, 2015. English. ⟨NNT : 2015ENMP0055⟩. ⟨tel-01243340v2⟩



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