Modélisation de fermes de systèmes houlomoteurs : effets d’interactions entre systèmes à l’échelle de la ferme et impact sur le climat de vagues à l'échelle régionale

Abstract : This thesis focuses on the development of a set of numerical tools to simulate different aspects of the wave-body interactions applied to the exploitation of wave energy converters (WEC). It was conducted under the ANR Monacorev project (project-ANR11 MONU-018-01, 2012-2015).The objective is to address the issue of the interactions at the scale of a farm of WECs (≈ 1 km), and to study the impact of one or more WEC farms at the regional scale (≈ 10km ) on the total wave field. Modeling and simulation methods adapted for each of these two scales are developed. Until now, the interactions between WECs was often studied by considering that the bottom was flat (the influence of a variable bathymetry on the wave field at the farm site being considered to be negligible), allowing to easily and quickly calculate the wave field and interactions through the use of linear potential theory. A practical application of this method is the yield estimation for a WEC farm and the optimization of the WEC position within a park. In the framework of the linear theory, this thesis proposes an original coupling methodology between a seakeeping (Aquaplus) and a wave propagation code in coastal areas (Artemis), which was developed and qualified. Simulations show that, for a given WEC farm configuration, effects of the bathymetry cannot systematically ignored. For example, the presence of a 10% slope close to a WEC farm can significantly modify the wave height, and thus affect the performance of the farm by several percent compared to the case with a uniformly flat bottom. At the regional coastal scale, it is also interesting to simulate and predict the impact of WEC farms on the wave field. At this scale, for efficiency reasons, a phase-averaged simulation of waves was preferred, based on the sea state spectral code TOMAWAC. The representation of the effects of a WEC through the use of a sink-term (concept for subtracting the energy equivalent to that absorbed by the WEC to the sea state energy spectrum), though incomplete due to the fact that the scattering effects are not taken into account, has been studied and tested. A new methodology taking into account these effects in a spectral code is presented here and tested with the aim to overcome these limitations. Discussions on the validity of these approaches allow us to propose possible future developments for the modeling of WEC farm at the regional scale
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François Charrayre. Modélisation de fermes de systèmes houlomoteurs : effets d’interactions entre systèmes à l’échelle de la ferme et impact sur le climat de vagues à l'échelle régionale. Mécanique des fluides [physics.class-ph]. Université Paris-Est, 2015. Français. ⟨NNT : 2015PESC1097⟩. ⟨tel-01259964⟩

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