Analyse multiéchelle des mécanismes de déformation du sel gemme par mesures de champs surfaciques et volumiques

Abstract : We develop in this study new experimental methodologies for the multi-scale experimental investigation of the micromechanics of polycrystalline materials. These methodologies are applied to synthetic halite (NaCl), which is a convenient model polycristal due to its viscoplastic behavior at both ambient and high temperatures (350°C). In addition, halite is used for industrial applications such as underground energy and waste storage. The ductile deformation at the scale of the microstructure operates not only through conventional intra-granular plasticity, but also through inter-granular deformation mechanisms, such as grain-boundary sliding (GBS). First, we precisely quantify the relative contribution of each of these local mechanisms to the macroscopic deformation of halite. For this purpose, we apply digital image correlation (DIC) technique to high resolution images obtained during uniaxial compression tests in the chamber of a scanning electron microscope (SEM). The DIC algorithms have been modified to account for the discontinuous kinematics at grain boundries. We also propose a method to improve accuracy of GBS quantification, which consists in creating specific artificial patterns across grain-boundaries by electron beam lithography. The results show that GBS is present from the beginning of plastic deformation of the polycrystal. The 2D observations (using SEM) are complemented by 3D volume investigations using X-ray computed microtomography and Digital Volume Correlation (DVC) techniques. In order to obtain local volume markers differing in contrast (density) from NaCl and adapted to DVC, micrometric copper particles (3 % in volume) are dispersed into the material during its elaboration. Various microstructures (in terms of average grain size) are considered. New DVC protocols allow us to obtain the three-dimensional distribution of ductile deformation at the scale of the polycrystalline microstructure, with a spatial resolution finer than the average grain size. 3D and 2D local mechanical fields are compared on the same samples submitted to uniaxial compression. The strain patterns and the deformation mechanisms observed in depth of the sample are consistent with those identified by 2D observations. The results show the same organization and development of strain localization bands in relation with the loading conditions and microstructure, both at the surface and in volume. The importance of inter-granular mechanisms for the plastic deformation and diffuse damage of halite is also confirmed in 3D. Finally, in view of a further numerical model of the plasticity of the polycrystal, the three-dimensional polycrystalline microstructure is characterized by diffraction contrast tomography and compared to 2D measurements obtained by electron BackScattered diffraction
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Ababacar Gaye. Analyse multiéchelle des mécanismes de déformation du sel gemme par mesures de champs surfaciques et volumiques. Matériaux. Université Paris-Est, 2015. Français. ⟨NNT : 2015PESC1053⟩. ⟨tel-01260084⟩

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