Devenir des micropolluants prioritaires et émergents dans les filières conventionnelles de traitement des eaux résiduaires urbaines (files eau et boues), et au cours du traitement tertiaire par charbon actif

Abstract : The first chapter is dedicated to the conventional primary and biological treatments. Hence, removals of a wide range of priority and emerging micropollutants were assessed for primary settling, physico-chemical lamellar settling, low load activated sludge process and biofiltration. Hydrophobic compounds and metals, as well as volatile organic compounds and biodegradable pollutants are rather well eliminated by these treatments. Moreover, considering removals normalized with nitrogen removals, the physico-chemical lamellar settling + biofiltration wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) is as efficient as the primary settling + low load activated sludge WWTP, despite its lower hydraulic retention time and its higher compactness. As a complement, the analysis in 3 WWTP effluents from SIAAP of 55 pharmaceuticals and hormones (PPHs) and 6 other emerging pollutants allowed characterizing the contamination of these discharges, and highlighting the high occurrence of 14 compounds at concentrations above 100 ng/L. In the second chapter, the contamination by micropollutants of different types of Parisian sewage sludges was assessed, as well as their fate during sludge treatments. Various compounds, such as alkylphenols, linear alkylbenzene sulfonates (LAS), metals, organotins, phthalates, polybromodiphenylethers (PBDEs), perfluorinated acids (PFAs), polychlorobiphenyls (PCBs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and PPHs, were quantified in raw, centrifuged, digested, thermally dried sludges and sludge cakes (cooking + press-filtering). Some of them (LAS, metals, PCBs) are not eliminated or less than dry matter by sludge treatments resulting in a content increase, while others (alkylphenols, organotins, PBDEs, PPHs, PFAs) are more removed than dry matter by anaerobic digestion and thermal drying. Overall, anaerobic digestion is the most efficient sludge process. Finally, the detection of several pollutants in the centrifuged and condensed waters from centrifugation and thermal drying indicates that a transfer is occurring and that biodegradation and volatilization are not the only mechanism to be involved in micropollutant removal from sludge. The last chapter aimed at investigating the performance of a large scale pilot operating with powdered (PAC) or micro-grain activated carbon (µGAC), during 32 campaigns. Results showed that most of PPHs, alkylphenols, artificial sweeteners, parabens and pesticides are efficiently removed (> 80%) by activated carbon in fluidized bed at moderate doses (10-20 g/m3). Furthermore, the activated carbon dose has a great influence on performances, whether with PAC or µGAC. Then, µGAC has several operational advantages (reactivability, ease of operation, high solid retention time, no need for coagulant/flocculant addition to handle the fluidized bed) over the PAC together with similar performances at a similar fresh µGAC dose (20 gµGAC/m3 ≈ 20 gPAC/m3). In addition this type of process allows an improvement of the conventional wastewater quality parameters, especially µGAC which retains total suspended solids and eliminates totally nitrites. Finally, a correlation between micropollutant and UV-254 removals has been confirmed, suggesting that this parameter could be used as a performances indicator. The complementary laboratory scale experiments performed within this chapter allowed understanding better the PAC adsorption mechanism in wastewater. The correlation between the specific surface, the bulk density of the PAC and PPHs removal has been displayed, as well as the importance of the fresh PAC dose and the contact time. Moreover, the positive effect of FeCl3 and negative influence of the quantity and quality of organic matter on micropollutant adsorption have been observed
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Romain Mailler. Devenir des micropolluants prioritaires et émergents dans les filières conventionnelles de traitement des eaux résiduaires urbaines (files eau et boues), et au cours du traitement tertiaire par charbon actif. Chimie analytique. Université Paris-Est, 2015. Français. ⟨NNT : 2015PESC1060⟩. ⟨tel-01260324⟩

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