Intégration de la maturité des connaissances dans la prise de décision en conception mécanique : application à un système solaire.

Abstract : The successful development of industrial products has a considerable economic challenge for the company. Decisions on concepts and product architecture have a significant impact on the overall cost of the product life cycle. Manufacturers are then increasingly encouraged to adopt methods to streamline design decisions. These methods must be consistent with the level of knowledge acquired on alternative design, the nature of decision making and assessment tools available. Thus, both methods of decision support have been developed in this thesis based on the study design phase.A first method is proposed for the upstream design stage in which the goal of the company is to reduce the number of concepts initially proposed to focus its efforts and resources on the most promising concepts. During this phase, the products are defined very loosely. Designers must then make a lot of assumptions when proposing role models to assess the concepts. These models, which express a knowledge of explicit nature, are insufficient to make choices concepts. To overcome this difficulty, we are moving in our study to the implicit knowledge (or subjective), obtained through the experience and expertise acquired by the designers. To integrate this knowledge in decision-making, it is first formalized through tools such as preferably functions. The overall approach to decision support proposed for combining both the implicit knowledge and explicit knowledge (represented by the role models) to assess each concept in terms of ability to meet the minimum requirements for validation and level fitness with the design goals. The objectives and preferences of decision makers are, in turn, structured and formalized through the OIA model (Observation-Interpretation-Aggregation) previously developed in the laboratory I2M-BMI.A second method was proposed for the downstream design phase that aims to set the parameters of the final product (choice of materials, dimensions, etc.) after the concept was chosen. During this phase, the product is defined in a more precise manner and behavior patterns are more representative of the relevant physical phenomena of the concept studied. These models are however based on assumptions which sometimes lead to a questioning their accuracy, especially for some design parameters. Fix the product parameters based solely on these patterns of behavior requires taking into account their accuracy level. We have therefore developed an accuracy indicator of these models that integrates on the one hand, an objective assessment which is the measure of difference between the model and a reference behavior (assumed correct) and, secondly, on a subjective assessment that is based on the distance measurement with the reference solution (prototyped solution) and trusts functions established by the designers. The combination of objective and subjective assessment of the accuracy provides at the end a general indicator of accuracy able to cover the entire design space. The indicator thus obtained is used in a method of decision support that qualifies each candidate solution in terms of risk posed by the accuracy of the models and level of satisfaction of design objectives (based the model OIA) .
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Mehdi El Amine. Intégration de la maturité des connaissances dans la prise de décision en conception mécanique : application à un système solaire.. Génie des procédés. Ecole nationale supérieure d'arts et métiers - ENSAM, 2015. Français. ⟨NNT : 2015ENAM0046⟩. ⟨tel-01264683⟩

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