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Mathematical contributions to the calculations of electronic structures

Abstract : This thesis contains three different topics, all related to electronic structure problems. These three topics are presented in three independent parts.This thesis begins with a general introduction presenting the problematics and main results.The first part is concerned with Density Functional Theory (DFT), for spin-polarized models. This part is divided in two chapters. In the first of these chapters, the notion of N-representability is introduced and the characterizations of the N-representable sets of spin-density 2X2 matrices are given. In the second chapter, we show how to mathematically treat the Zeeman term in spin-polarized DFT models. The existence of minimizers that was proved in (Anantharaman, Cancès 2009) for spin-unpolarized Kohn-Sham models within the local density approximation is extended to spin-polarized models.The second part of this thesis focuses on the GW approximation. We first give a mathematical definition of the one-body Green's function, and explain why methods based on Green's functions can be used to calculate electronic-excited energies of molecules. One way to compute an approximation of the Green's function is through the self-consistent GW equations. The well-posedness of these equations is discussed, and proved in the GW0 case in a perturbative regime. This is joint work with Eric Cancès and Gabriel Stoltz.In the third and final part, numerical methods to compute band-diagrams of crystalline structure are analyzed. This part is divided in two chapters.In the first one, we consider a perfect crystal in the reduced Hartree-Fock approximation (see (Cances, Deleurence, Lewin 2008)). We prove that, if the crystal is an insulator or a semi-conductor, then supercell calculations converge to the exact solution with an exponential rate of convergence with respect to the size of the supercell. This is joint work with Salma Lahbabi. In the last chapter, we provide a new numerical method to calculate the band diagram of a crystal (which can be either an insulator or a conductor). This method, based on reduced basis techniques, speeds up traditional calculations. This is joint work with Eric Cancès, Virginie Ehrlacher, and Damiano Lombardi
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David Gontier. Mathematical contributions to the calculations of electronic structures. General Mathematics [math.GM]. Université Paris-Est, 2015. English. ⟨NNT : 2015PESC1109⟩. ⟨tel-01271846⟩

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