Le pilotage de la genèse de communautés créatives par le co-design : contextes, dynamiques et organisation.

Abstract : More and more organizations turn to collective activities to design new products, services, processes or public policies with users, employees, citizens and other stakeholders. As a result, we know how to organize collective innovation under several forms : generally for moderated innovation with actors who work well together, within collectives who also function well. Yet, before discussing interactions for the purpose of innovating, we must recognize that we do not always perceive how these creative collectives emerge. Little is known about the moment it emerges. We also denote an antagonism regarding the management of communities, which is often badly perceived and potentially fatal. But then again, how can one stay on the touchlines when all the proper conditions are not in place a priori and when everything remains to be built?Thus, we are faced with a double unknown: 1) on the emergence of the creative communities, and de facto 2) on the management of the emergence of these collectives. How can we manage without being intrusive in contexts where there is nothing? Can innovation be a resource in this process and not only an effect? If that is the case, then we must understand how and for which reasons. Yet, the literature tends to separate both dimensions. It discusses innovation, but often portrays it as if it was reserved for "established" collectives ; or, on the other side, it discusses collectives, but it does not show how innovation can help in their development. Rather, the thesis demonstrates that there is a strong link between communities (relations) and innovation (for we are dealing with creative communities). That engaging in innovation (to design) strengthens the collective and that the collective strengthens the capacity of to innovate.We argue that co-design deals preciscly with this question. That this type of design poses as a tremendous space for the creation of collectives, where other methods fail, and that it gives way to creative communities where collective action was the least expected. More precisely, the thesis adresses the following three questions: 1) What are the characteristics of the collectives and the contexts "pre" community? 2) What is the role of design in the emergence of creative communities?; and 3) How to manage creative communities on the long run? By a qualitative and constructivist approach, it mobilizes a range of methodologies: multiple cases study, modelling and experimentation, as well as intervention research.Axis I deals with unstructured interpersonal relationships and contexts of innovation even less fertile than anticipated. Nevertheless, these conflicting initial relationships give way to a collective capacity to explore the unknown by the fact of engaging in co-design. The first managerial act of the genesis of a creative community lies in the capacity to transform, through a collective design activity, conflicts in common "undecidables", without solving them necessarily.Axis II demonstrates that the relational links strengthen as soon as actors engage in the generation of concepts; when they get to share and combine their knowledge in new ways. However, once this transformation has occured, communities need external resources to pursue their expansion. Thus, the second managerial act consists in putting back communities under tension by bringing in independent knowledge.Finally, the management of more elaborate and longer co-design initiatives in the third axis offers solutions to the various intra and inter sessions issues uncovered along the way. It also identifies two additional managerial acts: the consolidation of value and of the creative community, as well as the resolution collective proposals and the opening of new explorations.
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Louis-Etienne Dubois. Le pilotage de la genèse de communautés créatives par le co-design : contextes, dynamiques et organisation.. Gestion et management. Ecole Nationale Supérieure des Mines de Paris, 2015. Français. ⟨NNT : 2015ENMP0028⟩. ⟨tel-01273600⟩

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