Modèles probabilistes de populations : branchement avec catastrophes et signature génétique de la sélection

Abstract : This thesis is devoted to the probabilistic study of demographic and genetical responses of a population to some point wise events. In a first part, we are interested in the effect of random catastrophes, which kill a fraction of the population and occur repeatedly, in populations modeled by branching processes. First we construct a new class of processes, the continuous state branching processes with catastrophes, as the unique strong solution of a stochastic differential equation. Then we describe the conditions for the population extinction. Finally, in the case of almost sure absorption, we state the asymptotical rate of absorption. This last result has a direct application to the determination of the number of infected cells in a model of cell infection by parasites. Indeed, the parasite population size in a lineage follows in this model a branching process, and catastrophes correspond to the sharing of the parasites between the two daughter cells when a division occurs. In a second part, we focus on the genetic signature of selective sweeps. The genetic material of an individual (mostly) determines its phenotype and in particular some quantitative traits, as birth and intrinsic death rates, and interactions with others individuals. But genotype is not sufficient to determine "adaptation" in a given environment: for example the life expectancy of a human being is very dependent on his environment (access to drinking water, to medical infrastructures,...). The eco-evolutive approach aims at taking into account the environment by modeling interactions between individuals. When a mutation or an environmental modification occurs, some alleles can invade the population to the detriment of other alleles: this phenomenon is called a selective sweep and leaves signatures in the neutral diversity in the vicinity of the locus where the allele fixates. Indeed, this latter "hitchhiking” alleles situated on loci linked to the selected locus. The only possibility for an allele to escape this "hitchhiking" is the occurrence of a genetical recombination, which associates it to another haplotype in the population. We quantify the signature left by such a selective sweep on the neutral diversity. We first focus on neutral proportion variation in loci partially linked with the selected locus, under different scenari of selective sweeps. We prove that these different scenari leave distinct signatures on neutral diversity, which can allow to discriminate them. Then we focus on the linked genealogies of two neutral alleles situated in the vicinity of the selected locus. In particular, we quantify some statistics under different scenari of selective sweeps, which are currently used to detect recent selective events in current population genetic data. In these works the population evolves as a multitype birth and death process with competition. If such a model is more realistic than branching processes, the non-linearity caused by competitions makes its study more complex
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Charline Smadi. Modèles probabilistes de populations : branchement avec catastrophes et signature génétique de la sélection. Probabilités [math.PR]. Université Paris-Est, 2015. Français. ⟨NNT : 2015PESC1035⟩. ⟨tel-01274202⟩

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