Risque et optimisation pour le management d'énergies : application à l'hydraulique

Abstract : Hydropower is the main renewable energy produced in France. It brings both an energy reserve and a flexibility, of great interest in a contextof penetration of intermittent sources in the production of electricity. Its management raises difficulties stemming from the number of dams, from uncertainties in water inflows and prices and from multiple uses of water. This Phd thesis has been realized in partnership with Electricité de France and addresses two hydropower management issues, modeled as stochastic dynamic optimization problems. The manuscript is divided in two parts. In the first part, we consider the management of a hydroelectric dam subject to a so-called tourist constraint. This constraint assures the respect of a given minimum dam stock level in Summer months with a prescribed probability level. We propose different original modelings and we provide corresponding numerical algorithms. We present numerical results that highlight the problem under various angles useful for dam managers. In the second part, we focus on the management of a cascade of dams. We present the approximate decomposition-coordination algorithm called Dual Approximate Dynamic Programming (DADP). We show how to decompose an original (large scale) problem into smaller subproblems by dualizing the spatial coupling constraints. On a three dams instance, we are able to compare the results of DADP with the exact solution (obtained by dynamic programming); we obtain approximate gains that are only at a few percents of the optimum, with interesting running times. The conclusions we arrived at offer encouraging perspectives for the stochastic optimization of large scale problems
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Jean-Christophe Alais. Risque et optimisation pour le management d'énergies : application à l'hydraulique. Mathématiques générales [math.GM]. Université Paris-Est, 2013. Français. ⟨NNT : 2013PEST1071⟩. ⟨tel-01274340⟩

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