Analyse mathématique de méthodes numériques stochastiques en dynamique moléculaire

Abstract : In computational statistical physics, good sampling techniques are required to obtain macroscopic properties through averages over microscopic states. The main difficulty is that these microscopic states are typically clustered around typical configurations, and a complete sampling of the configurational space is thus in general very complex to achieve. Techniques have been proposed to efficiently sample the microscopic states in the canonical ensemble. An important example of quantities of interest in such a case is the free energy. Free energy computation techniques are very important in molecular dynamics computations, in order to obtain a coarse-grained description of a high-dimensional complex physical system. The first part of this thesis is dedicated to explore an extension of the classical adaptive biasing force (ABF) technique, which is used to compute the free energy associated to the Boltzmann-Gibbs measure and a reaction coordinate function. The problem of this method is that the approximated gradient of the free energy, called biasing force, is not a gradient. The contribution to this field, presented in Chapter 2, is to project the estimated biasing force on a gradient using the Helmholtz decomposition. In practice, the new gradient force is obtained by solving Poisson problem. Using entropy techniques, we study the longtime behavior of the nonlinear Fokker-Planck equation associated with the ABF process. We prove exponential convergence to equilibrium of the estimated free energy, with a precise rate of convergence in terms of the Logarithmic Sobolev inequality constants of the canonical measure conditioned to fixed values of the reaction coordinate. The interest of this projected ABF method compared to the original ABF approach is that the variance of the new biasing force is smaller, which yields quicker convergence to equilibrium. The second part, presented in Chapter 3, is dedicated to study local and global existence, uniqueness and regularity of the mild, Lp and classical solution of a nonlinear Fokker-Planck equation, arising in an adaptive biasing force method for molecular dynamics calculations. The partial differential equation is a semilinear parabolic initial boundary value problem with a nonlocal nonlinearity and periodic boundary conditions on the torus of dimension n, as presented in Chapter 3. The Fokker-Planck equation rules the evolution of the density of a given stochastic process that is a solution to Adaptive biasing force method. The nonlinear term is non local and is used during the simulation in order to remove the metastable features of the dynamics
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Houssam Alrachid. Analyse mathématique de méthodes numériques stochastiques en dynamique moléculaire. Mathématiques générales [math.GM]. Université Paris-Est, 2015. Français. ⟨NNT : 2015PESC1115⟩. ⟨tel-01275296⟩

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