Etude de la compacité optimale des mélanges granulaires binaires : classe granulaire dominante, effet de paroi, effet de desserrement

Abstract : Packing density of granular materials is a quantity which interests many sectors, in particular hydraulic concrete. When two monodimensional grain classes have no very different sizes, two geometrical interactions develop : the wall effect and the loosening effect. The first one express the perturbation of the packing of the small grains at the interface between large and small grains. The second one occurs when small grains are not enough fine to insert into small cavities created by the touching larger grains. We analyze how they are taken into account in existing packing models. We select finally the compressible packing model (CPM) of de Larrard et al., one of the most effective. In this one, wall effect and loosening effect are quantified by two coefficients. They can, of course, be calculated from experimental results on binary mixtures, as a function of fine/coarse diameter ratios. However, there is no satisfactory theory allowing to calculate them. This doctoral thesis is done to fill this missing link. Ordered and very packed piles of particles are used as a reference frame to be in adequation with the CPM assumptions which require, before the calculation of the real packing density, the determination of a virtual packing density. The latter is defined as the maximum packing density attainable if each particle could be positioned in its ideal location. This approach allows the creation of elementary juxtaposed cells. In that context, the effect of a smaller grain (loosening effect) or a larger grain (wall effect) on the packed class is based on the study of a foreign sphere surrounded by dominant class neighbours. The numerical simulation confirms the validity of the model. In addition to predict wall effect and loosening effect coefficients close to those determined theoretically, numerical simulation was used to predict the solid fraction of maximally dense disordered packings of bidisperse spherical frictionless particles with 0,2 and 0,4 size ratios. The « partial pressures » concept, that includes both geometrical and mechanical aspects, allows to complete and improve the notion of dominant class and to better understand the build-up of the granular skeleton. In addition with « small grains packed » and « large grains packed » zones, the numerical simulation has highlighted a joint zone, called « synergism zone of the granular skeleton » where « partial pressures » fine-large particles are the most important. With this new theory developed for geometrical interactions, the compressible packing model (CPM) is evolving to the new 4-parameter CPM which are : the wall effect coefficient, the loosening effect coefficient, the critical cavity size ratio and the compaction index of the mixing, which requires a new recalibration. The 4-parameter CPM demonstrates its efficiency to predict the packing density of binary mixtures from the analysis of 780 results obtained on different types of materials. Finally, a model intended to predict the viscosity of a multimodal concentrated suspension with spherical particles suspended in a viscous fluid is presented. We resort to the iterative approach advocated by Farris and to a power-law relation (Krieger-Dougherty type) for the relative viscosity, compatible with the Einstein relation appropriate for a dilute suspension. When the solid volume fraction reaches its critical value, the suspension is jammed and the mixture reaches the packing density of the solid skeleton calculated with the 4-parameter CPM
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Gérard Roquier. Etude de la compacité optimale des mélanges granulaires binaires : classe granulaire dominante, effet de paroi, effet de desserrement. Matériaux. Université Paris-Est, 2016. Français. ⟨NNT : 2016PESC1001⟩. ⟨tel-01289611⟩

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