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Analyse morphologique et modélisation pour l'optimisation structurelle d'électrodes

Abstract : This work, which combines image analysis, Fourier methods and morphological models, focuses on the prediction and optimization of the transport properties of fuel cell materials in the classical framework of the homogenization of random media. The materials under study are critical layers found in fuel cells.These devices produce clean electrical energy (and water) from chemical fuel oxidation.The materials studied here are novel types of fuel cells that combine several preexisting architectures. Their performance is determined by the ionic and electronic conductivity, on the one hand, and by permeability and specific surfaces exchange between the solid and porous phases. For materials with highly-contrasted properties (pores and solid, isolating and conducting media), the effective properties strongly depend on the spatial arrangement (morphology) of the various phases.Fuel cell layers are first described and modeled using 2D scanning electron microscopy images and image analysis.Microstructures are characterized by morphological descriptors and realistic random 3D media, based on Boolean and Gaussian fields, are developed to represent the materials. The latter are parametrized by simple geometrical characteristics including volume fractions and covariances.They are visually and quantitatively validated using morphological data.Second, the transport properties are predicted numerically using Fourier methods. In conductivity, a modified algorithm is proposed to suppress the Gibbs artifacts. For permeability, the scheme of Wiegman (2007) is used.The permeability of ideal Boolean models is computed and compared with various analytical estimates.The Berryman-Milton bound, previously known for the Boolean model of spheres, is computed for a Boolean model of flat cylinders, using an analytical expression for cylinder covariogramm. The ionic and electronic conductivity of anode layers, and their permeability are predicted using previously developed models. The permeability, which strongly depends on the morphology, is computed for various values of the models' parameters, including the specific surface area between solid and phases.Several virtual materials with improved properties are proposed.
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Submitted on : Thursday, March 31, 2016 - 9:49:27 AM
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  • HAL Id : tel-01295458, version 1


Bassam Abdallah. Analyse morphologique et modélisation pour l'optimisation structurelle d'électrodes. Autre. Ecole Nationale Supérieure des Mines de Paris, 2015. Français. ⟨NNT : 2015ENMP0031⟩. ⟨tel-01295458⟩



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