Bioaéroelasticité d’aéronefs à voilure tournante par bond graphs

Abstract : Under certain flight conditions, rotorcrafts might suffer from the emergence of undesirable oscillations, potentially unstable phenomena, known as aeroelastic Rotorcraft-Pilot Couplings (RPCs). These phenomena critically affect the safety and performance of rotorcraft designs. Therefore, there is an important interest in being able to predict the emergence of such dynamic phenomena, as soon as possible during the design process of helicopters. A review of the state-of-the-art reveals that these phenomena are the result of interactions between pilots’ biodynamics and helicopters’ aeroelastic behaviors. In order to provide more modularity and granularity in the modeling of complex systems, a bond graph based approach is used. A helicopter aeromechanical model and a pilot upper limb neuromusculoskeletal model are developed using bond graphs. Three original bond graph representations are proposed, to model: quasi-steady aerodynamic forces, lag-flap-pitch joint at blades’ roots, and a Hill-type muscle force model that accounts for muscle reflexive feedback. Encouraging results are found when comparing the pilot biodynamic model transmissibility cyclic lever angle to lateral cockpit accelerations computations to literature experimental results. A linear model of the coupled human-machine bioaeroelastic system around hover is analyzed in terms of stability. It reveals not only the regressing lag mode, as conjectured in literature, but also the advancing lag mode can be destabilized during a lateral-roll aeroelastic RPC. Furthermore, a criterion to assess the stability of the equilibrium of a dynamic system from a linear model limits the possibility to take into account nonlinear physical behaviors, reducing the design space. The first blocks towards a method based on Chetaev functions is proposed, to determine if an equilibrium is unstable, directly from its large nonlinear mathematical model, at a potentially interesting computational cost. The helicopter ‘ground resonance’ case illustrates the soundness of the proposal.
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Georges Tod. Bioaéroelasticité d’aéronefs à voilure tournante par bond graphs. Mécanique [physics.med-ph]. Ecole nationale supérieure d'arts et métiers - ENSAM, 2015. Français. ⟨NNT : 2015ENAM0042⟩. ⟨tel-01296582⟩

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