Simulation numérique du soudage FSW à l'aide d'une formulation ALE

Abstract : Since the invention of Friction Stir Welding (FSW) in 1991 by The Welding Institute (TWI), aeronautics industry has been investigating the possibility to use this process instead of riveting with the objective to lighten its structures and more particularly the aircrafts structure panels. Aircraft panels are often straightened with stringers and profiles which are joined to the outer skin. The qualification of FSW process in aeronautics requires producing very high quality joints with the longevity of tools, which requires fine tuning of process parameters such as the geometry of the welding tool (shoulder and pin dimensions, threads on pin and shoulder) and the advancing and rotating speeds. The aim of this work is to support the design of the process by numerical simulation. It has three parts: (1) developing an efficient and accurate Arbitrary Lagrangian or Eulerian (ALE) formulation within the parallel version of Forge® software, (2) modelling the FSW process and (3) calibrating the F.E. model and validating simulation results thanks to FSW experiments on lap joints.This work is based on the parallel ALE formulation developed in Forge® to model the different possible defects taking place in FSW (flashes and worm holes). The transport algorithm of continuous fields, required by the Eulerian frame, is enhanced to take the special characteristics of the FSW's flow into account (nodes located in input plan or flashes or in contact with the tool). A new time integration scheme based on cylindrical coordinates, which are best suited for this process, is introduced. Finally, the pin and shoulder threads are modelled by introducing a new friction law at the tool / material interface.This general and parallel ALE formulation is robust enough to model the FSW process. Thermomechanical results obtained are in agreement with previous results validated by experiences. And the numerical tool demonstrated its ability to model flashes formation and losses of contact behind the pin. Finally industrial welding lap joints configuration was studied. Experimental tests were conducted with several process parameters and type of lap joint. And measure of torque and forces in tool, and temperature in tool and sheet metal allowed to calibrate model parameters (friction, behavior law, thermal coefficients) and to validate FE results.
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Sabrina Gastebois. Simulation numérique du soudage FSW à l'aide d'une formulation ALE. Modélisation et simulation. Ecole Nationale Supérieure des Mines de Paris, 2015. Français. ⟨NNT : 2015ENMP0040⟩. ⟨tel-01298711⟩

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