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Faire de l’action publique une action collective : expertise et concertation pour la mise en œuvre des continuités écologiques sur les rivières périurbaines

Abstract : Biodiversity preservation and water management policies (WFD, Grenelle 1 and 2) require local stakeholders to restore ecological corridors and natural functions of rivers and aquatic environments. Implementing this measure on semi-artificial rivers in the Ile-de-France region can be an issue. In this context, river managers use dams to regulate the water level and to prevent floods. Therefore, they are reluctant to remove them. We made the assumption that those controversies about ecological continuity were mostly due to the diversity of expertise and representation of nature management. Therefore, we conducted two participative procedures to discuss those types of expertise and representations, on two different rivers in the Ile-de-France region: the Morin River and the Orge River. We studied the effects of those procedures and their ability to create collective action in order to restore continuities. On the Morin River, a companion modeling process was conducted to debate about longitudinal ecological continuity, associating scientists, elected representatives and user representatives (kayakers, fishermen). Using a model, participants shared their knowledge and representations of the river, to build a compromise between different management options. On the Orge River, a citizen jury was conducted to debate about green and blue corridors, involving elected representatives, river managers and citizens. We observed and analyzed debates and knowledge sharing during those procedures. We studied how ecological continuity could be implemented in suburban areas and how it could become a collective action involving all stakeholders. We compared participants' positions before and after the debates. Sharing expertise through those procedures led the participants to learn about the river, its functioning and about others. It helped elucidating values and representation of each participant, facilitating the common understanding of their position. A common representation of the system was built and uncertainties were debated. Therefore, the technical subject of ecological continuity became more explicit and more political. Those procedures didn't have a direct impact on political and management decisions. However, they facilitated the appropriation and legitimation of the concept of ecological continuity. We observed more trust between participants and the collective dynamics of discussions was improved. Therefore, to a certain extent, these procedures changed a technical concept for a socio-technical object, and turned this public policy into a collective action
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Amandine de Coninck. Faire de l’action publique une action collective : expertise et concertation pour la mise en œuvre des continuités écologiques sur les rivières périurbaines. Etudes de l'environnement. Université Paris-Est, 2015. Français. ⟨NNT : 2015PESC1078⟩. ⟨tel-01299526⟩



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