Identification des sources de phtalates et d'alkylphénols (polluants émergents) en milieu urbain et compréhension des processus d’élimination

Abstract : Alkylphenols (AP) and phthalates (or Phthalate Acid Esters - PAE) are classified as endocrine-disrupting compounds. Despite a small number of studies, some data suggests that phthalates could have a negative effect on reproduction in human beings (Bocken, 2001). Recently, Bergé et al. (2014) monitored alkylphenol and phthalate concentrations in wastewater at the scale of Paris conurbation: a heavily urbanized but weakly industrialized catchment. Such type of catchment, with 8.5 million inhabitants and less than 2% of wastewater originating from industries, could therefore be used to model the fate of alkylphenols and phthalates for major cities located in industrialized countries. It has been shown that alkylphenols and phthalates are not rejected by the industry but they mainly originate from domestic wastewater. Indeed, it was observed that more than 95% of the load derived from domestic wastewater (Bergé et al., 2014).However, the contribution of the different types of waters constituting domestic wastewater to the pollution of alkylphenols and phthalates has not been addressed so far. Our works have therefore helped to bridge this gap on the origin of four phthalate (DEP DnBP, BBP and DEHP) and two types of alkylphenols (nonylphenol and octylphenol isomers), among the most commonly studied congeners in greywater and blackwater. 165 samples of greywater, distributed into six categories (washing machine, dishwasher, dishes, cleaning floors, sink and shower) and 3 samples of black water (toilets) were collected directly from individuals. For that purpose, a specific sampling protocol for each type of water has been established then a call for volunteers was launched in the Paris region. 79 households (76 for greywater and 3 for wastewater) participated at this work leading to a unique robust database on greywater of the Paris conurbation. Significant disparities emerged between the different types of greywater. Indeed, results showed that wastewater from showers and washing machines account for more than 80% of both the phthalate and alkylphenol loads released to domestic wastewater. Therefore, it was decided to define more precisely the pollution sources of AP and PAE in both types of greywater. To do this, a decomposition of potential sources and a separate analysis of each of them led to different findings. Indeed, we demonstrated that alkyphenols and DnBP mostly originated from products used in showers and washing machines, while the other PAEs came from clothing and / or deposits that accumulated on it during the day.During this work, APs and PAEs were also monitored during the transport of wastewater within the sewer network and in the different stages of wastewater treatment plants. Within the sewer system, almost no change in concentrations of APs and PAEs was observed despite the level of contamination found in deposits from grit chambers (35 µg/g.dw for DEHP). We highlighted a significant evolution between 2010 and 2015 of AP and PAE loads transiting in the main trunks of Seine Aval WWTP, a 5 million population-equivalent WWTP. Indeed, loads observed during this thesis were 3 to 6 times lower than those observed by Bergé (2012) in 2011 for APs and from 2 to 4 times lower for PAEs. However, DnBP differs because the flows for this congener increased by a factor of 10 between 2011 and 2015
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Steven Deshayes. Identification des sources de phtalates et d'alkylphénols (polluants émergents) en milieu urbain et compréhension des processus d’élimination. Hydrologie. Université Paris-Est, 2015. Français. ⟨NNT : 2015PESC1148⟩. ⟨tel-01300742⟩

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