Signal injection and sensorless control of electrical motors

Abstract : This thesis proposes an in-depth study of some aspects of "sensorless" control algorithms for electrical machines. Over the past few years, thanks to the progress made in electronics, "sensorless" control laws became a standard expected from any variable speed drive for any electrical motor. However low-speed "sensorless" operation of electrical motors is inherently difficult, due to a theoretical limitation explained here by an observability study. Signal injection is a promising solution to circumvent this limitation, but its effects are not yet fully understood. In particular, experimental results are not explained by traditional linear sinusoidal models for electrical motors.Hence a new modeling approach for electrical motors is proposed here. It is much simpler than the usual ones and explains thoroughly why saturation can be modeled in the nonphysical dq frame. Signal injection effects are then explained using a multiple time-scale approach and, when put into the general context of nonlinear systems, it turns out to be a technique which allows to obtain more information without adding sensors. Thanks to this additional information, sensorless control of electrical motor becomes theoretically possible, even though the implementation remains challenging due to industrial constraints. Models for the Synchronous Reluctance Motor and the Induction Motor at no load are designed using the proposed approach and calibrated on experimental data but the procedure failed for the Induction Motor under load due to a lack of measurements combined to hysteresis effects. Besides, thanks to the similarities between electrical motors, underlined by the proposed modeling approach, we are able to generalize the proof of a "sensorless" control law designed for Synchronous Reluctance Motors to any kind of Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor.
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Pascal Combes. Signal injection and sensorless control of electrical motors. Automatic Control Engineering. Ecole Nationale Supérieure des Mines de Paris, 2015. English. ⟨NNT : 2015ENMP0053⟩. ⟨tel-01306275⟩

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